Tory Burch Tangerine New Tangerine Burch Flip Flop Sandals 26fcd5

Tory Burch Tangerine New Tangerine Burch Flip Flop Sandals 26fcd5
.MUSIC (DotMusic)

.MUSIC Community Top-Level Domain gTLD by DotMusic

Tory Burch Tangerine New Tangerine Burch Flip Flop Sandals 26fcd5


Christian Louboutin Black Chirana 100 Jazz Calf Pumps,Solution to Address Competition, Innovation and Diversity: Implement a “luxury” competitive balance tax on bidding. The size of the “luxury” bidding tax should be imposed according to the total number of uncontested strings each portfolio Applicant has and the number of strings awarded to the same Applicant after contention resolution (e.g. after a private auction).

Adding the “luxury” tax would help incentivize partnerships. Also it would enable portfolio Applicants to prioritize and not overpay for some gTLDs and focus their attentions on those they would like to focus on which also facilitates innovation. By increasingly raising the luxury tax bid for each successive auction, ICANN will help level the playing field. There are many cases of other industries using efficient mechanisms to promote competition, diversity, and innovation, including: i) Salary cap and Luxury Tax Penalties, ii) Professional Sports Draft, and iii) Spectrum Caps:Boot Barn Natural Gold Toned Near Mint Python and Leather Whip-stitched Cowboy Boots/Booties,

(i) Tory Burch Black Patent Leather Logo Mini Travel Ballet Flats,Salary cap and Competitive Balance Luxury Tax Penalties

In professional sports, a salary cap (or wage cap) is an agreement or rule that places a limit on the amount of money that a sporting club can spend on player salaries. The limit exists as a per-player limit or a total limit for the team’s roster, or both. Several sports leagues have implemented salary caps, both as a method of keeping overall costs down, and to ensure parity between teams so wealthy teams cannot entrench dominanceTory Burch Gold Metallic 'reva' Flats, by signing many more top players than their competitors.There are two main benefits derived from caps – promotion of parity between competitors and control of costs according to studies by:

Salvatore Ferragamo Creme 1db80157 Bow Heels Flats,Dietl, H., Lang, M. and Rathke, A. (2009): “The Effect of Salary Caps in Professional Team Sports on Social Welfare”, The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy, Vol. 9, Article 17,

Dietl, H., Franck, E., Lang, M. and Rathke, A. (2008): “Welfare Effects of Salary Caps in Sports Leagues with Win-Maximizing Clubs”, University of Zurich, ISU Working Paper Series No. 86,

Tory Burch Black Sku 2482 5698 Sandals,Dietl, H., Lang, M. and Rathke, A. (2010): “The Combined Effect of Salary Restrictions and Revenue Sharing in Sports Leagues”, forthcoming in Economic Inquiry,

For example, Major League Baseball implements a luxury tax (also called a competitive balance tax), an arrangement in which teams whose total payroll exceeds a certain figure (determined annually) are taxed on the excess amount in order to discourage large market teams from having a substantially higher payroll than the rest of the league. The tax is paid to the league, which then puts the money into its industry-growth fund (Dietl, H., Lang, M. and Werner, S. (2010): “The Effect of Luxury Taxes on Competitive Balance, Club Profits, and Social Welfare in Sports Leagues”,

Prada Black Patent Straw Basketweave Pumps,A team that goes over the luxury tax cap for the first time in a five-year period pays a penalty of 22.5% of the amount they were over the cap, second-time violators pay a 30% penalty, and teams that exceed the limit three or more times pay a 50% penalty from 2013 onwards. There is also an incentive to lower payroll; if in any year a team goes under the threshold, the penalty rate decreases to 17.5%, 25% or 40% (depending on prior record over the previous five years) for the next time the tax is paid, which will apply from 2013. The cap limit for 2011-2013 is $178 million, and for 2014-2016 $189 million.Primarily,Stuart Weitzman Brick Suede Loafers Flats, caps prevent wealthy teams from certain destructive behaviors, such as signing a multitude of high-paid star players to prevent their competitors from accessing talented players and ensuring victory through superior economic power.Tory Burch London Gray Gabby Flats, With a cap, each team has nearly the same economic power to attract players, which contributes to parity by producing roughly equal playing talent in each team in the league, and in turn brings economic benefits, both to the league and to its individual teams.UEFA, the governing body of the Champions League, one the world’s most popular leagues in viewership, has implemented a policy called Financial Fair Play (FFP) to protect the game of soccer and level the playing field. The objective of FFP is to ensure that all sports teams can compete equally, to introduce more discipline and rationality in club football finances and to limit the ability of ultra-wealthy billionaire owners (such as Chelsea’s Roman Abramovich or Manchester City’s Sheikh Mansour) to subsidize team expenses. EU law and US anti-trust law are similar in relation to sports since courts:

(i) require evidence of an actual imbalance of competition in the marketplace,

Gianvito Rossi Praline 105 Satin Pumps,Tom Ford Black Logo Ribbon Pumps,Miu Miu Flesh Ballet with Buckles Flats,ALDO Black High Heel Leather Boots/Booties,Free People Black Mesa Verde Distressed Gladiators 39 In Suede Sandals,Eileen Fisher Black Airy Caged Bootie Sandals,Dolce&Gabbana Dolce & Gabbana Brown Leather Fur Leopard Booties Pumps,Adrianna Papell Black Pearl Loafers Flats,Anne Klein Black Marthus Slip On Loafers In Patent Leather Flats,Vivienne Westwood Natural Anglomania Helen ; 10 FlatsManolo Blahnik Black Suade Jeweled Jewlery Pumps,Cole Haan Black Air Jasmine Gladiator Sandals,Valentino Black and White New Leather Caged Rockstud Ballerina Sz. 40 Euro FlatsValentino Bordeaux Red Rockstud Grained Leather Flats,Salvatore Ferragamo Black Mimi Heel Pumps,BeautiFeel Burgandy Brown Lavender Suede Dress Flats,Lanvin Black Designer Perforated Leather Cap Toe Ballet Flats,Burberry Pink Multi-color Women's House-check Rubber Wellies Boots/Booties,Valentino Black Garavani Ballerina Studs Grommet 38.5 B Flats,Christian Louboutin Black Donaflor 100 Velvet Figue Embroidered Floral Mule Sandal Heel Pumps,Christian Louboutin Blue Jonatina 100 Opal Green Pink White Pvc Ankle Strap Sandal Heel PumpsTory Burch Navy Two-band Jelly Slide Sandals,Stuart Weitzman Embellished Pearl Moc Loafer Flats,Tory Burch Coral Kaitlin Quilted Patent Leather Ballet Flats,DKNY Black Sloane Ankle Strap Boots/Booties,Jimmy Choo Pink Patent Slide On’s Pumps,Tory Burch Caramel Brown Thora SandalsBurberry Indigo Collingdon Dark Denim Sneakers 6/ 36 Flats,Donald J. Pliner Black Edgy Boots/Booties,Chloé Chloe Elastic Ankle Strap Ballet Flats,

(ii) allow sports teams to justify any competitive imbalances by demonstrating their legitimate pro-competitive benefits, and

(iii) to block sports teams from pursuing legitimate goals by overly restrictive means.It is clear that the FFP rules do affect “competitive balance.”

According to studies by the Institutue for Strategy and Business Economics at the University of Zurich (Egon Franck (2010), “Private Firm, Public Corporation or Member’s Association – Governance Structures in European Football”, International Journal of Sport Finance, 5(2), 108-127, other alternatives could also serve the purpose of leveling the playing field. One example is incorporating revenue-sharing, a common mechanism in professional U.S sports leagues. Another approach is imposing a salary cap based on the size of the league average payroll. Studies have shown that imposing a luxury tax increases competitive balance, especially if tax proceeds are distributed evenly between teams.By ensuring a healthy degree of parity between teams, games are more exciting for the fans and not a foregone conclusion. Sports leagues that have adopted caps because they believe letting richer teams accumulate talent affects the quality of the sporting product they want to sell. If only a handful of dominant teams are able to win consistently and challenge for the championship, many of the contests will be blowouts by the superior team, reducing the sport’s attractiveness for fans at the live events and viewers on television.Jimmy Choo Nude 'alina' Leather Pointy - 36.5 Flats,

(ii) Professional Sports’ Draft

Tory Burch Black Mini Miller Jelly Thong with Metallic Crystals Logo Sandals,ICANN’s Bylaws clearly highlight the need for implementing rules to foster competition, diversity and innovation and should follow in the footsteps of other popular and highly successful non-for profits such as the National Football League (NFL). ICANN is formally organized as a non-profit corporation “for charitable and public purposes” under the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law. ICANN was created in 1998 to oversee a number of Internet-related tasks previously performed directly on behalf of the U.S. government by other organizations, notably the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). Before the establishment of ICANN, the United States controlled the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet.


Jimmy Choo Romy 100 Navy Python Printed Denim Pointy Pumps,ICANN could learn insightful lessons from non-for profits such as the NFL on how to make a League (or in ICANN’s case the DNS) highly successful in relation to competition as mandated by its Bylaws. The NFL has a remarkable track record: they are the most successful sports league in the world with nearly $10 billion of revenues in 2012. Furthermore, NFL teams are on average the most lucrative and highly valued sports teams in the world. The average worth of a NFL team is $1.17 billion while in contrast the world’s top 20 soccer teams have a mean value of $968 million.Sam Edelman Black Knee High with Studs Boots/Booties,As a non-for profit organization the NFL implemented the NFL Draft to increase diversity, innovation and competition between NFL teams. In the NFL Draft, the draft order in the NFL is determined in a reverse-record order (the previous season’s worst team picking first, the Super Bowl winner picking last).Other leagues followed suit. In the AFL Draft, clubs receive picks based on the position in which they finish on the ladder. Therefore, the teams that finish at the bottom of the AFL ladder will get the first draft picks. Also, any team that finishes in a low ladder position for consecutive seasons will receive priority picks. The National Hockey League (NHL), another non-for profit organization, implemented the NHL Draft, which allowed all 14 teams that failed to qualify for the playoffs take part in a weighted lottery with the winner moving up as much as four draft positions and no drop more than one draft position.In the NBA Draft, instead of automatically granting the top pick to the worst team from the year before, the NBA holds a draft lottery to determine who chooses first. The top three picks are allocated by chance among the 14 teams that did not make the playoffs the year before. This discourages a team from losing on purpose to get a better draft pick.In the AFL Draft, clubs receive picks based on the position in which they finish on the ladder. Therefore, the teams that finish at the bottom of the AFL ladder will get the first draft picks. Also, any team that finishes in a low ladder position for consecutive seasons will receive priority picks.

Prada Porpora (Dark Red) Studded Suede Pumps,Alexander McQueen Black and Gold Boots/Booties,Saint Laurent Leopard Leather Espadrilles Flats,Tory Burch Black & Clay Beige Viv D'orsay Maison Leather FlatsTory Burch White Patent Leather Sling Back Flats,Birkenstock Black Arizona Soft Suede Sandals,Jimmy Choo Black Leather Unique Feminine PumpsCole Haan Gold 7b. with Lots Of Life Left. Used As Shown with Some Discoloration Inner Wear Flats,Tory Burch Black Lowell 2 Pebbled FlatsVince White Preston Slip-on Mesh Sneaker In Optic & Bone Vince-wz41 Flats,Tory Burch Navy Sea/Brilliant Blue/Jewel Blue Miller Fringe SandalsChristian Louboutin Pink Iriza Rosa Suede Stiletto Pumps,Vince Camuto Black Leather with Gold Buckles Boots/Booties,Plenty by Tracy Reese Pewter Adeline Leather Comfort Eur 41 Flats,Christian Louboutin Black with Mulitcolor Crystals 39.5 Pigalle Follies Suede Point Flats,Jack Rogers Caribbean Blue and Midnight Blue 1914sn0002 Sandals,Christian Louboutin Silver Pigalle Follies Laminato Dino Stiletto Pumps,Sperry Multicolor Top Sider Women's Waterproof Rubber Duck Navy Boots/Booties,Salvatore Ferragamo Natural Snake Travel Bow Ballet Flats,Stuart Weitzman Black "Fuelchain" Serpent Embossed Leather Moccasin W/Burnished Accent Chain Flats,Sam Edelman Becker Slide On Leopard Sneakers Flats,Jimmy Choo Black 'abel' Patent Leather - Pumps,Christian Louboutin Silver/Multi Moulamax 100 Paillettes Caresse/Gg Boots/BootiesSperry Tan / Brown Sider Women’s Oxford Women’s FlatsSaint Laurent Black Leather Sandals with Gold Studs Around The Ankle. Flats,J.Crew Green Patent Leather with Gold Heel Flats,Tory Burch Pink T Saucy Jelly Logo Bow Tie Thong SandalsChristian Louboutin Black Sova Heel Alligator Sandal Stiletto Pumps,Diane von Furstenberg Black Genna Boots/Booties,Stuart Weitzman Blue Teaseme Sure Aniline Flats,

According to the Kevin B. Grier, Robert D. Tollison, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, The rookie draft and competitive balance: The case of professional football, Vol. 25, 1994,

Sam Edelman Felicia Tomato Red Ballet Signature Toe Tie Flats,On average, the draft clearly matters; higher draft choices raise winning percentages significantly over time. The rookie draft tends to promote competitive balance. Further, relative success in the draft is correlated with on-the-field success (pg. 298).

Prada Purple and Black 153076 Flats,The draft tends to balance competition in professional football, as its architects intended it to do (pg.298).According to Ross Booth, Sport Management Review, Comparing Sports Leagues: Does a Salary Cap and Player Draft Measure Up?, 2005, 8, 119–143,

Evidence of competitive balance in the AFL is consistent with Booth’s theoretical argument that the introduction of the team salary cap and player draft has improved competitive balance in the AFL (pg.120)

Katy Perry Navy Shay Umbrella Thong Sandals,

Written by

View all posts by:

No Comments Yet.

Tory Burch Tangerine New Tangerine Burch Flip Flop Sandals 26fcd5