Christian Louboutin Gold Leather and Cork Strappy Wedges,Solution to Address Competition, Innovation and Diversity: Implement a “luxury” competitive balance tax on bidding. The size of the “luxury” bidding tax should be imposed according to the total number of uncontested strings each portfolio Applicant has and the number of strings awarded to the same Applicant after contention resolution (e.g. after a private auction).
Adding the “luxury” tax would help incentivize partnerships. Also it would enable portfolio Applicants to prioritize and not overpay for some gTLDs and focus their attentions on those they would like to focus on which also facilitates innovation. By increasingly raising the luxury tax bid for each successive auction, ICANN will help level the playing field. There are many cases of other industries using efficient mechanisms to promote competition, diversity, and innovation, including: i) Salary cap and Luxury Tax Penalties, ii) Professional Sports Draft, and iii) Spectrum Caps:Christian Louboutin Red Marylineska Formal Shoes,
(i) Giuseppe Zanotti Black Plato Sando Raso Doppiato. 170359 Platforms,Salary cap and Competitive Balance Luxury Tax Penalties
In professional sports, a salary cap (or wage cap) is an agreement or rule that places a limit on the amount of money that a sporting club can spend on player salaries. The limit exists as a per-player limit or a total limit for the team’s roster, or both. Several sports leagues have implemented salary caps, both as a method of keeping overall costs down, and to ensure parity between teams so wealthy teams cannot entrench dominanceASOS Black Espadrille Ankle Strap Sandals Heels Platforms, by signing many more top players than their competitors.There are two main benefits derived from caps – promotion of parity between competitors and control of costs according to studies by:
Tory Burch Brown Kathryn Leather Pump Reva Heel Wedges,Dietl, H., Lang, M. and Rathke, A. (2009): “The Effect of Salary Caps in Professional Team Sports on Social Welfare”, The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy, Vol. 9, Article 17, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/72_ISU_full.pdf
Dietl, H., Franck, E., Lang, M. and Rathke, A. (2008): “Welfare Effects of Salary Caps in Sports Leagues with Win-Maximizing Clubs”, University of Zurich, ISU Working Paper Series No. 86, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/86_ISU_full.pdf
Boston Proper Resort Boho Posh Snakeskin Wedges,Dietl, H., Lang, M. and Rathke, A. (2010): “The Combined Effect of Salary Restrictions and Revenue Sharing in Sports Leagues”, forthcoming in Economic Inquiry, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/102_ISU_full.pdf
For example, Major League Baseball implements a luxury tax (also called a competitive balance tax), an arrangement in which teams whose total payroll exceeds a certain figure (determined annually) are taxed on the excess amount in order to discourage large market teams from having a substantially higher payroll than the rest of the league. The tax is paid to the league, which then puts the money into its industry-growth fund (Dietl, H., Lang, M. and Werner, S. (2010): “The Effect of Luxury Taxes on Competitive Balance, Club Profits, and Social Welfare in Sports Leagues”, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/91_ISU_full.pdf).
Cole Haan Red Milly Tango Suede D38361 Wedges,A team that goes over the luxury tax cap for the first time in a five-year period pays a penalty of 22.5% of the amount they were over the cap, second-time violators pay a 30% penalty, and teams that exceed the limit three or more times pay a 50% penalty from 2013 onwards. There is also an incentive to lower payroll; if in any year a team goes under the threshold, the penalty rate decreases to 17.5%, 25% or 40% (depending on prior record over the previous five years) for the next time the tax is paid, which will apply from 2013. The cap limit for 2011-2013 is $178 million, and for 2014-2016 $189 million.Primarily,Prada Black High Heeled Sandals Formal Shoes, caps prevent wealthy teams from certain destructive behaviors, such as signing a multitude of high-paid star players to prevent their competitors from accessing talented players and ensuring victory through superior economic power.Thakoon Addition Black Karo Oxfords Platforms, With a cap, each team has nearly the same economic power to attract players, which contributes to parity by producing roughly equal playing talent in each team in the league, and in turn brings economic benefits, both to the league and to its individual teams.UEFA, the governing body of the Champions League, one the world’s most popular leagues in viewership, has implemented a policy called Financial Fair Play (FFP) to protect the game of soccer and level the playing field. The objective of FFP is to ensure that all sports teams can compete equally, to introduce more discipline and rationality in club football finances and to limit the ability of ultra-wealthy billionaire owners (such as Chelsea’s Roman Abramovich or Manchester City’s Sheikh Mansour) to subsidize team expenses. EU law and US anti-trust law are similar in relation to sports since courts:
(i) require evidence of an actual imbalance of competition in the marketplace,
Manolo Blahnik White Nacanti Pvc Formal Shoes,Jimmy Choo Glitter Silver and Gold Nova 110 Leather Peep Toe Pumps Platforms,Delman Beige Stella Patent Slingback Sandals Platforms,Christian Louboutin Brown and Purple Wedges,Joie Grey Anita Laser Cut Mule Wedges,Donald J. Pliner Off-white with Gray Shades M 085 PlatformsBettye Muller Natural Open Toe Spadrille Sandals Wedges,Christian Louboutin Black Suede So Kate Pumps Platforms,Jimmy Choo Creme / Grey Snakeskin Caged Sadal Platforms,Chloé Brown Calf Sandal Espadrille Wedges,Saks Fifth Avenue Black Strappy Dressy Heels Formal Shoes,Chinese Laundry Nude - Cl By Wedges,Black Crysral Adorned Majestic Formal Shoes,Allen Edmonds 'madison Ave' Walnut Cap Toe Derby D - 8600 Formal Shoes,Stella McCartney Gold Scarpa Plast.s.gomma PlatformsChristian Louboutin Black White Fishnet Sling Wedges 39 1/2 Platforms,Cole Haan Black Heels Strappy Open Toe Sandal Heels B Wedges,Christian Louboutin Gold Glitter Altareva 160 Heels Platforms,Isabel Marant Black The Bekett Wedges,Cole Haan Black Men- Loafers Formal Shoes,Karen Scott Black Velvet Heels Formal Shoes,Longchamp Brown/ Tan Snakeskin Sandal #150-41 Wedges,Miu Miu Black T Strap Studded Heels Platforms,Miu Miu Multi-color Brocade Sandal Platforms,Andre Assous Natural and Black Espadrille WedgesTory Burch Nude Cassidy Slingback Wedges,Melissa Grey and Light Yellow Patchuli V Rubber Wedges,Dries van Noten Black/Silver All Leather Stilleto PlatformsNine West Black Patent and Cork Style Ego Trip Wedges,Christian Louboutin Black Menorca 100 Wedges
(ii) allow sports teams to justify any competitive imbalances by demonstrating their legitimate pro-competitive benefits, and
(iii) to block sports teams from pursuing legitimate goals by overly restrictive means.It is clear that the FFP rules do affect “competitive balance.”
According to studies by the Institutue for Strategy and Business Economics at the University of Zurich (Egon Franck (2010), “Private Firm, Public Corporation or Member’s Association – Governance Structures in European Football”, International Journal of Sport Finance, 5(2), 108-127, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/106_ISU_full.pdf) other alternatives could also serve the purpose of leveling the playing field. One example is incorporating revenue-sharing, a common mechanism in professional U.S sports leagues. Another approach is imposing a salary cap based on the size of the league average payroll. Studies have shown that imposing a luxury tax increases competitive balance, especially if tax proceeds are distributed evenly between teams.By ensuring a healthy degree of parity between teams, games are more exciting for the fans and not a foregone conclusion. Sports leagues that have adopted caps because they believe letting richer teams accumulate talent affects the quality of the sporting product they want to sell. If only a handful of dominant teams are able to win consistently and challenge for the championship, many of the contests will be blowouts by the superior team, reducing the sport’s attractiveness for fans at the live events and viewers on television.Jean-Michel Cazabat Tan Leather Cage Heels Platforms,
(ii) Professional Sports’ Draft
Tory Burch Black New Miller Logo 60mm Sandal Wedges,ICANN’s Bylaws clearly highlight the need for implementing rules to foster competition, diversity and innovation and should follow in the footsteps of other popular and highly successful non-for profits such as the National Football League (NFL). ICANN is formally organized as a non-profit corporation “for charitable and public purposes” under the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law. ICANN was created in 1998 to oversee a number of Internet-related tasks previously performed directly on behalf of the U.S. government by other organizations, notably the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). Before the establishment of ICANN, the United States controlled the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet.
Very nice slippers! Previously New! May have a few signs of wear...No visible major damages. In Great condition!Heel Height:High (3 in. and Up)US Shoe Size (Women's):7
Width:Medium (B, M)
Steve Madden Grey Winny Sandals 755 Wedges,ICANN could learn insightful lessons from non-for profits such as the NFL on how to make a League (or in ICANN’s case the DNS) highly successful in relation to competition as mandated by its Bylaws. The NFL has a remarkable track record: they are the most successful sports league in the world with nearly $10 billion of revenues in 2012. Furthermore, NFL teams are on average the most lucrative and highly valued sports teams in the world. The average worth of a NFL team is $1.17 billion while in contrast the world’s top 20 soccer teams have a mean value of $968 million.Manolo Blahnik Brown Leather Round-toe Sandal Wedges,As a non-for profit organization the NFL implemented the NFL Draft to increase diversity, innovation and competition between NFL teams. In the NFL Draft, the draft order in the NFL is determined in a reverse-record order (the previous season’s worst team picking first, the Super Bowl winner picking last).Other leagues followed suit. In the AFL Draft, clubs receive picks based on the position in which they finish on the ladder. Therefore, the teams that finish at the bottom of the AFL ladder will get the first draft picks. Also, any team that finishes in a low ladder position for consecutive seasons will receive priority picks. The National Hockey League (NHL), another non-for profit organization, implemented the NHL Draft, which allowed all 14 teams that failed to qualify for the playoffs take part in a weighted lottery with the winner moving up as much as four draft positions and no drop more than one draft position.In the NBA Draft, instead of automatically granting the top pick to the worst team from the year before, the NBA holds a draft lottery to determine who chooses first. The top three picks are allocated by chance among the 14 teams that did not make the playoffs the year before. This discourages a team from losing on purpose to get a better draft pick.In the AFL Draft, clubs receive picks based on the position in which they finish on the ladder. Therefore, the teams that finish at the bottom of the AFL ladder will get the first draft picks. Also, any team that finishes in a low ladder position for consecutive seasons will receive priority picks.
Tory Burch Red Peep Toe Wedges,Tory Burch Brown Patent Sophie Leather Wedges,Prada White Leather Cut Out Sandal Wedges,Brian Atwood Pink Satin Leida Formal Shoes,Christian Louboutin Nude Jamie 160mm 1150593 Platforms,Camilla Skovgaard Grey Suede Heels Platforms,Tory Burch Black with Silver 50008660 WedgesElizabeth and James Black Perfect Suede Wedges,Christian Louboutin Pink Multi Color Sari Silk Sari Wedges,Jimmy Choo Light Bronze Glitter Lame 'kayden' Platform High Heel Sandals Formal Shoes,Saint Laurent Black New Ysl 209947 Patent Leather Tribtoo Pumps 38 Platforms,Jessica Simpson Cobalt Blue--rustic She's Got The Blues Platforms,Christian Louboutin Black Ron Ron Zeppa New WedgesTory Burch Black Reva Leather Cork Ankle Strap Style Wedges,Sesto Meucci Gold Oro Jose Metallic Espadrille Wedges,Jimmy Choo Black Suede Tida Metallic Gold Cut Out Strappy Ankle Sandals Formal Shoes,Tom Ford 105 Mm Ankle Strap PlatformsCamilla Skovgaard Black Victorian Chic PlatformsJimmy Choo Tan Leather Criss Cross Wedges,Tory Burch Black Leather 'mini Miller' Pump Grain Wedges,Jessica Simpson Black Silver Hardware Leather WedgesBarneys Co-Op Black Heels Formal Shoes,Christian Louboutin Pewter Jenny 150 Calf Laminato Platforms,Jeffrey Campbell Brown Marbled Print Patent Faux Leather Ultra Wedges PlatformsTory Burch Americana Turquoise Patent Calf Leather Cork Thora #11108615 445 Wedges,Tory Burch Black Leticia 95mm Open Peep Toe Leather Gold Logo Wedges,Miss Sixty Brown Adorable Leather Leather Flowers Hippy Like 7.5 Nwob Wedges,Dyeables Silver New Starlight Collection Greta Heels Rhinestone Formal Shoes,Christian Louboutin Black Satin Sandal PlatformsSergio Rossi Forest Green Scarpe Donna Platforms,
According to the Kevin B. Grier, Robert D. Tollison, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, The rookie draft and competitive balance: The case of professional football, Vol. 25, 1994, http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/G/Kevin.B.Grier-1/JEBO1994.pdf:
Sophia Webster Light Pink Don’t Know Formal Shoes,On average, the draft clearly matters; higher draft choices raise winning percentages significantly over time. The rookie draft tends to promote competitive balance. Further, relative success in the draft is correlated with on-the-field success (pg. 298).
Saint Laurent Purple Tribute New 193098 Platforms,The draft tends to balance competition in professional football, as its architects intended it to do (pg.298).According to Ross Booth, Sport Management Review, Comparing Sports Leagues: Does a Salary Cap and Player Draft Measure Up?, 2005, 8, 119–143, http://law.psu.edu/_file/Sports%20Law%20Policy%20and%20Research%20Institute/booth%20comparing%20competitive%20balance.pdf:
Evidence of competitive balance in the AFL is consistent with Booth’s theoretical argument that the introduction of the team salary cap and player draft has improved competitive balance in the AFL (pg.120)
No Comments Yet.
Jessica Simpson Worn Blue Great Cond. Slightly Worn Simpson Without Box. Wedges 38cc49
- Read more
- Read more
- Read more
- Read more