Christian Louboutin Multicolor Janibasse Gold Embellished Mule White Leather Gold Janibasse Wedges 1b55e5

Christian Louboutin Multicolor Janibasse Gold Embellished Mule White Leather Gold Janibasse Wedges 1b55e5
.MUSIC (DotMusic)

.MUSIC Community Top-Level Domain gTLD by DotMusic

Christian Louboutin Multicolor Janibasse Gold Embellished Mule White Leather Gold Janibasse Wedges 1b55e5


Pour La Victoire Navy with Various Colors Snakeskin Heels Formal Shoes,Solution to Address Competition, Innovation and Diversity: Implement a “luxury” competitive balance tax on bidding. The size of the “luxury” bidding tax should be imposed according to the total number of uncontested strings each portfolio Applicant has and the number of strings awarded to the same Applicant after contention resolution (e.g. after a private auction).

Adding the “luxury” tax would help incentivize partnerships. Also it would enable portfolio Applicants to prioritize and not overpay for some gTLDs and focus their attentions on those they would like to focus on which also facilitates innovation. By increasingly raising the luxury tax bid for each successive auction, ICANN will help level the playing field. There are many cases of other industries using efficient mechanisms to promote competition, diversity, and innovation, including: i) Salary cap and Luxury Tax Penalties, ii) Professional Sports Draft, and iii) Spectrum Caps:Christian Louboutin Pink Black White Peep Toe Sling Platforms,

(i) Jessica Simpson Multicolor Evangela Sandals Platforms,Salary cap and Competitive Balance Luxury Tax Penalties

In professional sports, a salary cap (or wage cap) is an agreement or rule that places a limit on the amount of money that a sporting club can spend on player salaries. The limit exists as a per-player limit or a total limit for the team’s roster, or both. Several sports leagues have implemented salary caps, both as a method of keeping overall costs down, and to ensure parity between teams so wealthy teams cannot entrench dominanceTory Burch Tan Logo Leather Wedges, by signing many more top players than their competitors.There are two main benefits derived from caps – promotion of parity between competitors and control of costs according to studies by:

Tory Burch Royal Tan Melinda 85mm Wedges,Dietl, H., Lang, M. and Rathke, A. (2009): “The Effect of Salary Caps in Professional Team Sports on Social Welfare”, The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy, Vol. 9, Article 17,

Dietl, H., Franck, E., Lang, M. and Rathke, A. (2008): “Welfare Effects of Salary Caps in Sports Leagues with Win-Maximizing Clubs”, University of Zurich, ISU Working Paper Series No. 86,

Tory Burch Scarlet Red Amanda Wedges,Dietl, H., Lang, M. and Rathke, A. (2010): “The Combined Effect of Salary Restrictions and Revenue Sharing in Sports Leagues”, forthcoming in Economic Inquiry,

For example, Major League Baseball implements a luxury tax (also called a competitive balance tax), an arrangement in which teams whose total payroll exceeds a certain figure (determined annually) are taxed on the excess amount in order to discourage large market teams from having a substantially higher payroll than the rest of the league. The tax is paid to the league, which then puts the money into its industry-growth fund (Dietl, H., Lang, M. and Werner, S. (2010): “The Effect of Luxury Taxes on Competitive Balance, Club Profits, and Social Welfare in Sports Leagues”,

Giuseppe Zanotti Studded Black Leather Gold Heels Formal Shoes,A team that goes over the luxury tax cap for the first time in a five-year period pays a penalty of 22.5% of the amount they were over the cap, second-time violators pay a 30% penalty, and teams that exceed the limit three or more times pay a 50% penalty from 2013 onwards. There is also an incentive to lower payroll; if in any year a team goes under the threshold, the penalty rate decreases to 17.5%, 25% or 40% (depending on prior record over the previous five years) for the next time the tax is paid, which will apply from 2013. The cap limit for 2011-2013 is $178 million, and for 2014-2016 $189 million.Primarily,Christian Louboutin Black 'very Priv 120 Calf' Platforms, caps prevent wealthy teams from certain destructive behaviors, such as signing a multitude of high-paid star players to prevent their competitors from accessing talented players and ensuring victory through superior economic power.FLY London Black Mice Buckle Leather Slip On Sneaker Platforms, With a cap, each team has nearly the same economic power to attract players, which contributes to parity by producing roughly equal playing talent in each team in the league, and in turn brings economic benefits, both to the league and to its individual teams.UEFA, the governing body of the Champions League, one the world’s most popular leagues in viewership, has implemented a policy called Financial Fair Play (FFP) to protect the game of soccer and level the playing field. The objective of FFP is to ensure that all sports teams can compete equally, to introduce more discipline and rationality in club football finances and to limit the ability of ultra-wealthy billionaire owners (such as Chelsea’s Roman Abramovich or Manchester City’s Sheikh Mansour) to subsidize team expenses. EU law and US anti-trust law are similar in relation to sports since courts:

(i) require evidence of an actual imbalance of competition in the marketplace,

Christian Louboutin Black Cross Me Platforms,Madison Harding Black Suede Wooden Heels Platforms,Ralph Lauren Blue Peep Toe Sandal Wedges,Circa Joan & David Black (Patent Leather Fabric) Yolata WedgesBCBGeneration Butterscotch New M Leather Excellent Condition WedgesTory Burch Black Astoria 90mm Soft Patent Calf Wedges,Tory Burch Black and Gold Pacey Cap-toe Pump Wedges,Christian Louboutin Royal Blue Lady Highness Platforms,Christian Louboutin Grey Riveto 70 Python Crisscross Open Toe Heels Pumps WedgesChristian Louboutin Beige Madame Butterfly Booty PlatformsJimmy Choo Silver 'baxen' Champagne Glitter Peep-toe Wedges,House of Harlow 1960 Pink Cream Blush Snakeskin Sandals 38.5 Platforms,Chloé Blue Lauren Cobalt Suede Ankle Strap Espadrille Sandal Heel 36 Wedges,Christian Louboutin Black Slingback Formal ShoesSaint Laurent Black Tribute Two Textured Leather Pumps Platforms,Christian Louboutin Nude and Gold Glitter Platforms,Salvatore Ferragamo Black Flori 2 Mens Calf Leather Driving Loafer D Formal Shoes,Christian Louboutin Black Daffodile 160 Leather Pumps Platforms,Donald J. Pliner Black Betina Embellished Formal Shoes,SJP by Sarah Jessica Parker Gold Paranymph 40 Eu / 9-9.5 Metallic Crystal Embellished Slingback Formal Shoes,Miu Miu Black Flared Suede Heels PlatformsChristian Louboutin Black So Private 120 Patent Calf Platforms,Casadei Snakeskin and Tan Fabulous Never Worn Wedges,Stuart Weitzman Animal Print Chocolate and Light Browns Lw94190 Platforms,Christian Louboutin Nude Rivierina Formal Shoes,Zara Tan & Black Two-tone Fabric Ankle Boots Formal Shoes,Christian Louboutin Pink Bianca 140mm Platforms,Cole Haan Black Patent Maria Sharapova Tiered Leather Heel Platforms,Guess Brown Parris Ankle Strap Sandals 595 Dark Natural Platforms,Tory Burch Brown Kathryn Leather Pump Reva Heel Wedges,

(ii) allow sports teams to justify any competitive imbalances by demonstrating their legitimate pro-competitive benefits, and

(iii) to block sports teams from pursuing legitimate goals by overly restrictive means.It is clear that the FFP rules do affect “competitive balance.”

According to studies by the Institutue for Strategy and Business Economics at the University of Zurich (Egon Franck (2010), “Private Firm, Public Corporation or Member’s Association – Governance Structures in European Football”, International Journal of Sport Finance, 5(2), 108-127, other alternatives could also serve the purpose of leveling the playing field. One example is incorporating revenue-sharing, a common mechanism in professional U.S sports leagues. Another approach is imposing a salary cap based on the size of the league average payroll. Studies have shown that imposing a luxury tax increases competitive balance, especially if tax proceeds are distributed evenly between teams.By ensuring a healthy degree of parity between teams, games are more exciting for the fans and not a foregone conclusion. Sports leagues that have adopted caps because they believe letting richer teams accumulate talent affects the quality of the sporting product they want to sell. If only a handful of dominant teams are able to win consistently and challenge for the championship, many of the contests will be blowouts by the superior team, reducing the sport’s attractiveness for fans at the live events and viewers on television.Burberry Blue Nova Check Plaid Espadrilles Mules Wedges,

(ii) Professional Sports’ Draft

Tory Burch Black and Ivory Wedges,ICANN’s Bylaws clearly highlight the need for implementing rules to foster competition, diversity and innovation and should follow in the footsteps of other popular and highly successful non-for profits such as the National Football League (NFL). ICANN is formally organized as a non-profit corporation “for charitable and public purposes” under the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law. ICANN was created in 1998 to oversee a number of Internet-related tasks previously performed directly on behalf of the U.S. government by other organizations, notably the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). Before the establishment of ICANN, the United States controlled the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet.


These are white leather Christian Louboutin Janibasse Embellished Wedge Mule in size 38. The insole is 9 5/8".

Shining studs and braided trim wrap the platform sole of a chic wedge mule paneled in rich leather and suede.

Heel Style:Wedge
Toe Style:Peep Toe, Open Toe
5" (125mm) heel
Leather upper, lining and sole
Made in Italy
The shoes do not come with the original dustbag or box.

Tory Burch White Canvas Open Wedges,ICANN could learn insightful lessons from non-for profits such as the NFL on how to make a League (or in ICANN’s case the DNS) highly successful in relation to competition as mandated by its Bylaws. The NFL has a remarkable track record: they are the most successful sports league in the world with nearly $10 billion of revenues in 2012. Furthermore, NFL teams are on average the most lucrative and highly valued sports teams in the world. The average worth of a NFL team is $1.17 billion while in contrast the world’s top 20 soccer teams have a mean value of $968 million.Salvatore Ferragamo Black Nude Interior M1x1sk Formal Shoes,As a non-for profit organization the NFL implemented the NFL Draft to increase diversity, innovation and competition between NFL teams. In the NFL Draft, the draft order in the NFL is determined in a reverse-record order (the previous season’s worst team picking first, the Super Bowl winner picking last).Other leagues followed suit. In the AFL Draft, clubs receive picks based on the position in which they finish on the ladder. Therefore, the teams that finish at the bottom of the AFL ladder will get the first draft picks. Also, any team that finishes in a low ladder position for consecutive seasons will receive priority picks. The National Hockey League (NHL), another non-for profit organization, implemented the NHL Draft, which allowed all 14 teams that failed to qualify for the playoffs take part in a weighted lottery with the winner moving up as much as four draft positions and no drop more than one draft position.In the NBA Draft, instead of automatically granting the top pick to the worst team from the year before, the NBA holds a draft lottery to determine who chooses first. The top three picks are allocated by chance among the 14 teams that did not make the playoffs the year before. This discourages a team from losing on purpose to get a better draft pick.In the AFL Draft, clubs receive picks based on the position in which they finish on the ladder. Therefore, the teams that finish at the bottom of the AFL ladder will get the first draft picks. Also, any team that finishes in a low ladder position for consecutive seasons will receive priority picks.

Prada Gold and Brown Espadrille Wedgesdexflex Comfort Black and Tan and One Plan Tan Bundle Wedges,Stuart Weitzman Black Red Gold Pink Blue Green Peau De Soie Silk Colour Rhinestones Pumps Heels Formal Shoes,Christian Louboutin Nude Patent Altadama PlatformsBurberry Brown and British Tan High Heelstrench 39 Euro Saddle Leather Wedge Clogs Sandal Slip On Mules Platforms,Salvatore Ferragamo Light Purple/Grey Besy Cork Sandals Wedges,Tory Burch Astoria Leopard Calf Fur Wedges,Penny Loves Kenny Brown Worn Once Wedges,Badgley Mischka Light Metallic Gold Chloe Ii Formal ShoesSaint Laurent Brown Tribute Sandals Platforms,Jeffrey Campbell Black Washed Cassius Buckle Booties Platforms,Prada Red Patent Vernice Rosso Wedges,Jimmy Choo Blac Patent Leather Heels New with Box WedgesChristian Louboutin Turquoise Classic Louis Flat Studded Spikes Men's High Top Sneakers 41 Formal Shoes,Paper Fox Blue and Black Omara Formal Shoes,Christian Louboutin Neon Yellow Hyper Prive 120 Platforms,Tory Burch Gray Venice Ash/Coconut Sandal Platforms,Free People Black + Tan Ankle Tie WedgesChristian Louboutin Black Round Toe Pumps Wedges,Christian Louboutin Patent Black Pigalle Follies Formal Shoes,Tory Burch Black/Gold Loretta Wedge Velvet Sandal PlatformsSaint Laurent Gray Fatale 95 PlatformsTory Burch Dark Brown Free Shipping Platforms,Steven by Steve Madden Gold Metallic Cooper Wedges,Cole Haan Black Peeptoe Leather Wedges,Jimmy Choo Raspberry Patent Sandal Formal Shoes,Prada Camo Camouflage Pony Hair Open Peep Toe Pumps Heels Platforms,Christian Louboutin Armadillo 120 Nappa Platforms,Jeffrey Campbell Black & White Lita Platforms,Taryn Rose Black Nappa and Patent Mary Jane with Cap Toe Wedges

According to the Kevin B. Grier, Robert D. Tollison, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, The rookie draft and competitive balance: The case of professional football, Vol. 25, 1994,

Christian Louboutin Nude Marpolo Sling Back Patent Platforms,On average, the draft clearly matters; higher draft choices raise winning percentages significantly over time. The rookie draft tends to promote competitive balance. Further, relative success in the draft is correlated with on-the-field success (pg. 298).

Chinese Laundry Hazelnut Clean Avenue Heel Platforms,The draft tends to balance competition in professional football, as its architects intended it to do (pg.298).According to Ross Booth, Sport Management Review, Comparing Sports Leagues: Does a Salary Cap and Player Draft Measure Up?, 2005, 8, 119–143,

Evidence of competitive balance in the AFL is consistent with Booth’s theoretical argument that the introduction of the team salary cap and player draft has improved competitive balance in the AFL (pg.120)

Jimmy Choo Beige Parley Patent Cork Nude Eu 37 Wedges,

Written by

View all posts by:

No Comments Yet.

Christian Louboutin Multicolor Janibasse Gold Embellished Mule White Leather Gold Janibasse Wedges 1b55e5