Christian Louboutin Lady Highness Toe 160 Patent Calf Toe Highness Platforms 449983

Christian Louboutin Lady Highness Toe 160 Patent Calf Toe Highness Platforms 449983
.MUSIC (DotMusic)

.MUSIC Community Top-Level Domain gTLD by DotMusic

Christian Louboutin Lady Highness Toe 160 Patent Calf Toe Highness Platforms 449983


Giuseppe Zanotti Light Gold Jem Sculpted Heel-less Platforms,Solution to Address Competition, Innovation and Diversity: Implement a “luxury” competitive balance tax on bidding. The size of the “luxury” bidding tax should be imposed according to the total number of uncontested strings each portfolio Applicant has and the number of strings awarded to the same Applicant after contention resolution (e.g. after a private auction).

Adding the “luxury” tax would help incentivize partnerships. Also it would enable portfolio Applicants to prioritize and not overpay for some gTLDs and focus their attentions on those they would like to focus on which also facilitates innovation. By increasingly raising the luxury tax bid for each successive auction, ICANN will help level the playing field. There are many cases of other industries using efficient mechanisms to promote competition, diversity, and innovation, including: i) Salary cap and Luxury Tax Penalties, ii) Professional Sports Draft, and iii) Spectrum Caps:Lauren Ralph Lauren Pink Silk Plaid Wedges,

(i) Cole Haan Beige Snake Print Wedges,Salary cap and Competitive Balance Luxury Tax Penalties

In professional sports, a salary cap (or wage cap) is an agreement or rule that places a limit on the amount of money that a sporting club can spend on player salaries. The limit exists as a per-player limit or a total limit for the team’s roster, or both. Several sports leagues have implemented salary caps, both as a method of keeping overall costs down, and to ensure parity between teams so wealthy teams cannot entrench dominanceMagnanni Brown For Saks Fifth Avenue Formal Shoes, by signing many more top players than their competitors.There are two main benefits derived from caps – promotion of parity between competitors and control of costs according to studies by:

Saint Laurent Brown Aliama Lizard Embossed Heels Platforms,Dietl, H., Lang, M. and Rathke, A. (2009): “The Effect of Salary Caps in Professional Team Sports on Social Welfare”, The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy, Vol. 9, Article 17,

Dietl, H., Franck, E., Lang, M. and Rathke, A. (2008): “Welfare Effects of Salary Caps in Sports Leagues with Win-Maximizing Clubs”, University of Zurich, ISU Working Paper Series No. 86,

Saint Laurent Green Crocodile Effect Leather Heels 38/Us 8 315487 3118 Platforms,Dietl, H., Lang, M. and Rathke, A. (2010): “The Combined Effect of Salary Restrictions and Revenue Sharing in Sports Leagues”, forthcoming in Economic Inquiry,

For example, Major League Baseball implements a luxury tax (also called a competitive balance tax), an arrangement in which teams whose total payroll exceeds a certain figure (determined annually) are taxed on the excess amount in order to discourage large market teams from having a substantially higher payroll than the rest of the league. The tax is paid to the league, which then puts the money into its industry-growth fund (Dietl, H., Lang, M. and Werner, S. (2010): “The Effect of Luxury Taxes on Competitive Balance, Club Profits, and Social Welfare in Sports Leagues”,

Prada Navy Donna Criss Cross Mule Espadrille Platforms,A team that goes over the luxury tax cap for the first time in a five-year period pays a penalty of 22.5% of the amount they were over the cap, second-time violators pay a 30% penalty, and teams that exceed the limit three or more times pay a 50% penalty from 2013 onwards. There is also an incentive to lower payroll; if in any year a team goes under the threshold, the penalty rate decreases to 17.5%, 25% or 40% (depending on prior record over the previous five years) for the next time the tax is paid, which will apply from 2013. The cap limit for 2011-2013 is $178 million, and for 2014-2016 $189 million.Primarily,Kork-Ease Brown Criss Cross Sandals Wedges, caps prevent wealthy teams from certain destructive behaviors, such as signing a multitude of high-paid star players to prevent their competitors from accessing talented players and ensuring victory through superior economic power.Miu Miu Navy Tan Platform Sandal Espadrille Leather Blue Wedges, With a cap, each team has nearly the same economic power to attract players, which contributes to parity by producing roughly equal playing talent in each team in the league, and in turn brings economic benefits, both to the league and to its individual teams.UEFA, the governing body of the Champions League, one the world’s most popular leagues in viewership, has implemented a policy called Financial Fair Play (FFP) to protect the game of soccer and level the playing field. The objective of FFP is to ensure that all sports teams can compete equally, to introduce more discipline and rationality in club football finances and to limit the ability of ultra-wealthy billionaire owners (such as Chelsea’s Roman Abramovich or Manchester City’s Sheikh Mansour) to subsidize team expenses. EU law and US anti-trust law are similar in relation to sports since courts:

(i) require evidence of an actual imbalance of competition in the marketplace,

Christian Louboutin Black White and Red Slingbacks Lady Peep Patent Leather Platforms,Donald J. Pliner Brown Carla Elastic Strap Wedge Pumps Expresso Disp PlatformsValentino Black Nero/Carn Beige Made In Milano Italia Fws00382-aptp01 A430196633 PlatformsDyeables White Open-toe Satin Sandals Formal ShoesJimmy Choo Nude Patent Leather Phyllis Wedges,Donald J. Pliner Beige/Natural Sela-b6 Platforms,Jessica Simpson Snake Skin Rayli Platforms,Prada Black Saffiano Leather Cork Platform Sandal Heel Thong Open Toe 37.5 Wedges,Jimmy Choo Metallic Gray Velvet Lucy 100mm Formal Shoes,Saint Laurent Grey Tribute Yves Braided Sandals Platforms,Christian Louboutin Black/Teal Vampanodo 140mm Platforms,Jessica Simpson Black Ha-rayanna Heels Platforms,Christian Louboutin Silver Prive Glitter Sling Backs Formal Shoes,Christian Louboutin Very Prive 2015 Platforms,Jeffrey Campbell Black Lita Spike Boot PlatformsChristian Louboutin Purple/Cream Virage Espadrille Wedges,Manolo Blahnik Black Suede Formal ShoesSaint Laurent Nude Suede Palais 80 Pump Platforms,Jimmy Choo Tan Espadrille Sandal Wedges,Rachel Zoe Beige and Brown Eva Wedges,Christian Louboutin Blue Tiburon Bow Wedges,Clarks Brown Leather Ankle Tie WedgesSaint Laurent Metallic Peep Toe Palais Pumps 39.5 Platforms,Christian Louboutin Black Bikee Bike Zeppa Wedges,Jeffrey Campbell Black Stella Exclusively For Free People PlatformsPrada Black Calzature Donna Leather Platforms,Christian Louboutin Nude Tuctopen D'orsay Sandal PlatformsBlack 9-10 M Very Good Condition Wedges,Nine West Black Mary Jane Hidden Stiletto Platforms,Missoni Blue Silver and Black Platforms

(ii) allow sports teams to justify any competitive imbalances by demonstrating their legitimate pro-competitive benefits, and

(iii) to block sports teams from pursuing legitimate goals by overly restrictive means.It is clear that the FFP rules do affect “competitive balance.”

According to studies by the Institutue for Strategy and Business Economics at the University of Zurich (Egon Franck (2010), “Private Firm, Public Corporation or Member’s Association – Governance Structures in European Football”, International Journal of Sport Finance, 5(2), 108-127, other alternatives could also serve the purpose of leveling the playing field. One example is incorporating revenue-sharing, a common mechanism in professional U.S sports leagues. Another approach is imposing a salary cap based on the size of the league average payroll. Studies have shown that imposing a luxury tax increases competitive balance, especially if tax proceeds are distributed evenly between teams.By ensuring a healthy degree of parity between teams, games are more exciting for the fans and not a foregone conclusion. Sports leagues that have adopted caps because they believe letting richer teams accumulate talent affects the quality of the sporting product they want to sell. If only a handful of dominant teams are able to win consistently and challenge for the championship, many of the contests will be blowouts by the superior team, reducing the sport’s attractiveness for fans at the live events and viewers on television.Magnanni Brown and Birch Man Penny Loafers 3 Tones Color Formal Shoes,

(ii) Professional Sports’ Draft

Stella McCartney Deep Blue Elyse Scarpa Gomma Fuller Platforms,ICANN’s Bylaws clearly highlight the need for implementing rules to foster competition, diversity and innovation and should follow in the footsteps of other popular and highly successful non-for profits such as the National Football League (NFL). ICANN is formally organized as a non-profit corporation “for charitable and public purposes” under the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law. ICANN was created in 1998 to oversee a number of Internet-related tasks previously performed directly on behalf of the U.S. government by other organizations, notably the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). Before the establishment of ICANN, the United States controlled the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet.


Purchased in Paris , wore a few times .

Christian Louboutin White/Python T Strap Sandal Platforms,ICANN could learn insightful lessons from non-for profits such as the NFL on how to make a League (or in ICANN’s case the DNS) highly successful in relation to competition as mandated by its Bylaws. The NFL has a remarkable track record: they are the most successful sports league in the world with nearly $10 billion of revenues in 2012. Furthermore, NFL teams are on average the most lucrative and highly valued sports teams in the world. The average worth of a NFL team is $1.17 billion while in contrast the world’s top 20 soccer teams have a mean value of $968 million.Brian Atwood Black Beige Brown Espadrille Platforms,As a non-for profit organization the NFL implemented the NFL Draft to increase diversity, innovation and competition between NFL teams. In the NFL Draft, the draft order in the NFL is determined in a reverse-record order (the previous season’s worst team picking first, the Super Bowl winner picking last).Other leagues followed suit. In the AFL Draft, clubs receive picks based on the position in which they finish on the ladder. Therefore, the teams that finish at the bottom of the AFL ladder will get the first draft picks. Also, any team that finishes in a low ladder position for consecutive seasons will receive priority picks. The National Hockey League (NHL), another non-for profit organization, implemented the NHL Draft, which allowed all 14 teams that failed to qualify for the playoffs take part in a weighted lottery with the winner moving up as much as four draft positions and no drop more than one draft position.In the NBA Draft, instead of automatically granting the top pick to the worst team from the year before, the NBA holds a draft lottery to determine who chooses first. The top three picks are allocated by chance among the 14 teams that did not make the playoffs the year before. This discourages a team from losing on purpose to get a better draft pick.In the AFL Draft, clubs receive picks based on the position in which they finish on the ladder. Therefore, the teams that finish at the bottom of the AFL ladder will get the first draft picks. Also, any team that finishes in a low ladder position for consecutive seasons will receive priority picks.

Christian Louboutin Black Marilla Braided Leather Flat Slides Sandals,Christian Louboutin Black Satin Slingback Peep Toe Pumps Platforms,Jimmy Choo Black Suede Sandal PlatformsJuicy Couture Multi-color Flip Flop Sandals Ajce15002ripc WedgesJimmy Choo Navy Blue Baxen Peep-toe Patent 36.5 Wedges,Black Patent with Gold Details Jazzy Formal Shoes,Christian Louboutin Black Daffodil Leather PlatformsChristian Louboutin Patent Black Highness 160 Calf Platforms,Pedro Garcia Navy Suede Wedge PlatformsNine West Black White M Very Good Condition WedgesChristian Louboutin Nude Cork Patent Wedges,Badgley Mischka White Mp3283 Formal Shoes,Christian Louboutin * Nude Victoria Patent Leather Pumps - 39/9 Platforms,Christian Louboutin Dark Red Orlan Suede Peep Toe Pumps Platforms,Rachel Zoe Black Beverly Vachetta PlatformsRed Circle Footwear Blue Suede Flipper Pointy Wedges,Stuart Weitzman Black Espadrille Platform 06562 Wedges,Manolo Blahnik Grey Srila Formal Shoes,Saint Laurent Gold Bronze Tribtoo Pump Platforms,Christian Louboutin Black Bye Bye Suede PlatformsALA?A Brown Suede Ankle/Oxford Boot Platforms,Sole Society Taupe Audrina Platform Espadrilles Wedges,Tory Burch Black Melinda Pumps Wedges,Jimmy Choo Black Heel Formal ShoesChristian Louboutin Gray Alta Vicky Platforms,Prada Grey Classic Patent Leather Peep Open Toe Heel Pumps 36.5 Platforms,Stuart Weitzman Multi Blue & Black Lillie Platforms,Bandolino Red Patent Excellent Condition WedgesChristian Louboutin Silver Mule Espidrille Wedges,Fendi Grey/White/Black Women Style Spike Sandal Heel Formal Shoes,

According to the Kevin B. Grier, Robert D. Tollison, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, The rookie draft and competitive balance: The case of professional football, Vol. 25, 1994,

Steve Madden Black & Tan Wedges,On average, the draft clearly matters; higher draft choices raise winning percentages significantly over time. The rookie draft tends to promote competitive balance. Further, relative success in the draft is correlated with on-the-field success (pg. 298).

Christian Louboutin New Embellished Sandals 8 Wedges,The draft tends to balance competition in professional football, as its architects intended it to do (pg.298).According to Ross Booth, Sport Management Review, Comparing Sports Leagues: Does a Salary Cap and Player Draft Measure Up?, 2005, 8, 119–143,

Evidence of competitive balance in the AFL is consistent with Booth’s theoretical argument that the introduction of the team salary cap and player draft has improved competitive balance in the AFL (pg.120)

Pixie Market Navy Blue Leather Suede High Heel Formal Shoes,

Written by

View all posts by:

No Comments Yet.

Christian Louboutin Lady Highness Toe 160 Patent Calf Toe Highness Platforms 449983