Saint Laurent Congac Brown Tribute Platforms,Solution to Address Competition, Innovation and Diversity: Implement a “luxury” competitive balance tax on bidding. The size of the “luxury” bidding tax should be imposed according to the total number of uncontested strings each portfolio Applicant has and the number of strings awarded to the same Applicant after contention resolution (e.g. after a private auction).
Adding the “luxury” tax would help incentivize partnerships. Also it would enable portfolio Applicants to prioritize and not overpay for some gTLDs and focus their attentions on those they would like to focus on which also facilitates innovation. By increasingly raising the luxury tax bid for each successive auction, ICANN will help level the playing field. There are many cases of other industries using efficient mechanisms to promote competition, diversity, and innovation, including: i) Salary cap and Luxury Tax Penalties, ii) Professional Sports Draft, and iii) Spectrum Caps:Saint Laurent Black Patent Leather Platforms,
(i) Kenneth Cole Reaction Grey Liberty Knock Wedges,Salary cap and Competitive Balance Luxury Tax Penalties
In professional sports, a salary cap (or wage cap) is an agreement or rule that places a limit on the amount of money that a sporting club can spend on player salaries. The limit exists as a per-player limit or a total limit for the team’s roster, or both. Several sports leagues have implemented salary caps, both as a method of keeping overall costs down, and to ensure parity between teams so wealthy teams cannot entrench dominanceChristian Louboutin Black Suede Pipina 55mm Pumps Wedges, by signing many more top players than their competitors.There are two main benefits derived from caps – promotion of parity between competitors and control of costs according to studies by:
Cole Haan Silver Style Formal Shoes,Dietl, H., Lang, M. and Rathke, A. (2009): “The Effect of Salary Caps in Professional Team Sports on Social Welfare”, The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy, Vol. 9, Article 17, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/72_ISU_full.pdf
Dietl, H., Franck, E., Lang, M. and Rathke, A. (2008): “Welfare Effects of Salary Caps in Sports Leagues with Win-Maximizing Clubs”, University of Zurich, ISU Working Paper Series No. 86, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/86_ISU_full.pdf
Christian Louboutin Black Lady Peep Platforms,Dietl, H., Lang, M. and Rathke, A. (2010): “The Combined Effect of Salary Restrictions and Revenue Sharing in Sports Leagues”, forthcoming in Economic Inquiry, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/102_ISU_full.pdf
For example, Major League Baseball implements a luxury tax (also called a competitive balance tax), an arrangement in which teams whose total payroll exceeds a certain figure (determined annually) are taxed on the excess amount in order to discourage large market teams from having a substantially higher payroll than the rest of the league. The tax is paid to the league, which then puts the money into its industry-growth fund (Dietl, H., Lang, M. and Werner, S. (2010): “The Effect of Luxury Taxes on Competitive Balance, Club Profits, and Social Welfare in Sports Leagues”, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/91_ISU_full.pdf).
Christian Louboutin Muliti Color/With Leopard Heel Sling Back/Python Winter Trash Platforms,A team that goes over the luxury tax cap for the first time in a five-year period pays a penalty of 22.5% of the amount they were over the cap, second-time violators pay a 30% penalty, and teams that exceed the limit three or more times pay a 50% penalty from 2013 onwards. There is also an incentive to lower payroll; if in any year a team goes under the threshold, the penalty rate decreases to 17.5%, 25% or 40% (depending on prior record over the previous five years) for the next time the tax is paid, which will apply from 2013. The cap limit for 2011-2013 is $178 million, and for 2014-2016 $189 million.Primarily,RED Valentino Black Suede Open Bow Toe Pumps High Heels, caps prevent wealthy teams from certain destructive behaviors, such as signing a multitude of high-paid star players to prevent their competitors from accessing talented players and ensuring victory through superior economic power.Free People Black Shadow Dancer Grommets Ankle Strap New Wedges, With a cap, each team has nearly the same economic power to attract players, which contributes to parity by producing roughly equal playing talent in each team in the league, and in turn brings economic benefits, both to the league and to its individual teams.UEFA, the governing body of the Champions League, one the world’s most popular leagues in viewership, has implemented a policy called Financial Fair Play (FFP) to protect the game of soccer and level the playing field. The objective of FFP is to ensure that all sports teams can compete equally, to introduce more discipline and rationality in club football finances and to limit the ability of ultra-wealthy billionaire owners (such as Chelsea’s Roman Abramovich or Manchester City’s Sheikh Mansour) to subsidize team expenses. EU law and US anti-trust law are similar in relation to sports since courts:
(i) require evidence of an actual imbalance of competition in the marketplace,
Tory Burch Aquarius Savannah 45mm Sandal WedgesHelmut Lang Olive Men's Snakeskin Leather Round Toe Slip On Loafer Formal ShoesMiu Miu Denim New W/ Tag 2017 Platform Sandal Wedges,Missoni Purple Peep Toe Wedge PlatformsPrada Metallic Gold Leather Pumps Woven Eu 38.5 New Italy Platformsadidas Off White Tech Super Hidden Wedges,Theory Navy Theyskens' Ziggy' Pumps Platforms,Cole Haan White Woven Nike Air Peep Toe Sneaker Wedges,Giuseppe Zanotti Brown/Multi Lorenz Marrone Metallic Wedges,Tory Burch Purple Tan Sherri Platform Floral Mid Espadrille Sandals Purple/Royal WedgesNine West Multi Red Freewill Platforms,Valentino Straw and Silver Sandal Platforms,Aquatalia Precilla Mule 7 1/2 Wedges,7 For All Mankind Black Wedges,Balenciaga Blush Mesh & Leather Wedges,Navy Blue Over Nude Perforated Leather Stiletto Pumps Platforms,Salvatore Ferragamo White Leather Slingback Heels (59820) Formal Shoes,Christian Louboutin Multi-color Faux Leopard Low Wedge Round Toe Platforms,Stuart Weitzman Black Patent Leather Wedges,Christian Louboutin Cork Lady Peep Platforms,Jimmy Choo Bronze 570916 Leather Embellished Sandal 38 Wedges,Steven by Steve Madden Gray & Taupe Sweatme Platforms,Dolce&Gabbana Champagne Evening Formal Shoes Size US,Sebastian Milano Greg and Black Serena Pump Platforms,Tory Burch Black 'sally' Peep-toe Wedges,Rasolli White Lady Godiva 11201 Formal Shoes,Bottega Veneta Black Brown and Red Intercciato Wedges,Betsey Johnson Fushia Leopard Formal Shoes,Dolce&Gabbana Red Satin New Formal ShoesStuart Weitzman White Wedding with Rhinestones Formal Shoes,
(ii) allow sports teams to justify any competitive imbalances by demonstrating their legitimate pro-competitive benefits, and
(iii) to block sports teams from pursuing legitimate goals by overly restrictive means.It is clear that the FFP rules do affect “competitive balance.”
According to studies by the Institutue for Strategy and Business Economics at the University of Zurich (Egon Franck (2010), “Private Firm, Public Corporation or Member’s Association – Governance Structures in European Football”, International Journal of Sport Finance, 5(2), 108-127, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/106_ISU_full.pdf) other alternatives could also serve the purpose of leveling the playing field. One example is incorporating revenue-sharing, a common mechanism in professional U.S sports leagues. Another approach is imposing a salary cap based on the size of the league average payroll. Studies have shown that imposing a luxury tax increases competitive balance, especially if tax proceeds are distributed evenly between teams.By ensuring a healthy degree of parity between teams, games are more exciting for the fans and not a foregone conclusion. Sports leagues that have adopted caps because they believe letting richer teams accumulate talent affects the quality of the sporting product they want to sell. If only a handful of dominant teams are able to win consistently and challenge for the championship, many of the contests will be blowouts by the superior team, reducing the sport’s attractiveness for fans at the live events and viewers on television.Ted Baker Black + Silver Wedges,
(ii) Professional Sports’ Draft
Prada Black & Oxblood Leather Pointed-toe Loafers Formal Shoes,ICANN’s Bylaws clearly highlight the need for implementing rules to foster competition, diversity and innovation and should follow in the footsteps of other popular and highly successful non-for profits such as the National Football League (NFL). ICANN is formally organized as a non-profit corporation “for charitable and public purposes” under the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law. ICANN was created in 1998 to oversee a number of Internet-related tasks previously performed directly on behalf of the U.S. government by other organizations, notably the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). Before the establishment of ICANN, the United States controlled the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet.
YSL Yves Saint Laurent Tribtoo Grainy Orient Red Pumps Shoes
100% Authentic Beautiful pumps by YSL. These are made of red grainy leather with a slight shine. There is a hidden platform for comfort and stiletto heels. The front of the shoes have two stitches. Pristine Condition. Does your look need a lift? This simply silhouetted Yves Saint Laurent pump comes equipped with a dramatic platform--evocative of Mr. Saint Laurent's legendary self-assertive aesthetic. Pebbled patent leather. Dart conceals 1" platform. 4" covered heel; 3" equiv. "Tribute Two" is made in Italy.
Boutique 9 Ivory Studded Leather Formal Shoes,ICANN could learn insightful lessons from non-for profits such as the NFL on how to make a League (or in ICANN’s case the DNS) highly successful in relation to competition as mandated by its Bylaws. The NFL has a remarkable track record: they are the most successful sports league in the world with nearly $10 billion of revenues in 2012. Furthermore, NFL teams are on average the most lucrative and highly valued sports teams in the world. The average worth of a NFL team is $1.17 billion while in contrast the world’s top 20 soccer teams have a mean value of $968 million.Christian Louboutin Dark Blue Banana 140 Platforms,As a non-for profit organization the NFL implemented the NFL Draft to increase diversity, innovation and competition between NFL teams. In the NFL Draft, the draft order in the NFL is determined in a reverse-record order (the previous season’s worst team picking first, the Super Bowl winner picking last).Other leagues followed suit. In the AFL Draft, clubs receive picks based on the position in which they finish on the ladder. Therefore, the teams that finish at the bottom of the AFL ladder will get the first draft picks. Also, any team that finishes in a low ladder position for consecutive seasons will receive priority picks. The National Hockey League (NHL), another non-for profit organization, implemented the NHL Draft, which allowed all 14 teams that failed to qualify for the playoffs take part in a weighted lottery with the winner moving up as much as four draft positions and no drop more than one draft position.In the NBA Draft, instead of automatically granting the top pick to the worst team from the year before, the NBA holds a draft lottery to determine who chooses first. The top three picks are allocated by chance among the 14 teams that did not make the playoffs the year before. This discourages a team from losing on purpose to get a better draft pick.In the AFL Draft, clubs receive picks based on the position in which they finish on the ladder. Therefore, the teams that finish at the bottom of the AFL ladder will get the first draft picks. Also, any team that finishes in a low ladder position for consecutive seasons will receive priority picks.
Marc by Marc Jacobs Leather Thong Sandals Wedges,Vince Camuto Black Heels Formal Shoes Size USSaint Laurent Black Patent Leather Tribute T- Strap Sandal Platforms,Ralph Lauren Collection Dark Chocolate Brown Cork Slides with Rl Logo Platforms,Tory Burch Royal Tan New In Box Laura Slide Tumbled Leather WedgesAsh Stone Women's Thelma Sneaker Wedges,Christian Louboutin Yellow Green Galia Flat Wedges,Prada Black Strappy Satin Dress Sandals Formal ShoesChristian Louboutin Blac Very Croise PlatformsVia Spiga Red Daffodil Patent Strappy Heels Sandal Platforms,Christian Louboutin Gold Metallic Slide Sandals In Wedges,Nina Gold Viani Jeweled Dress Sandals Taupe Reflective Us/35.5 Di WedgesChristian Louboutin Black Leather & Silver Chain Wedges,Jimmy Choo Trapeze Sandals Formal Shoes,Prada Red Patent Peep Toe Pumps PlatformsExpress Black Exe Corfu Women Platforms,Céline Bordeaux Women's Espadrilles 39/9 WedgesSocialite White Great For Comfort. Summer Is Great For Thise Picnics and Nights Out WedgesChristian Louboutin Nude with Studs Wedges,Christian Louboutin Ivory Mini Glitter Tobboggan 100 Pumps Formal Shoes,Miu Miu Brown * Leather Studded Sandals Platforms,Cole Haan Black Air Austyn Sandal Platforms,Blue White Stripe Comfortable Stetchy Fabric Wedges,Camper Dark Blue Leather and Suede Wooden Sandals WedgesBlack / Beige Cara Leather Cork Sandals Eur 39.5 Wedges,Anne Klein Pewter/Gray Lavender The Neville Formal Shoes,Miu Miu Denim Blue Washed Belted Pumps Platforms,Diane von Furstenberg Black Zia PlatformsMatt Bernson Black Tan Bottom Unknown Wedges,Jimmy Choo Khaki Green Vachetta T Strap Wedges,
According to the Kevin B. Grier, Robert D. Tollison, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, The rookie draft and competitive balance: The case of professional football, Vol. 25, 1994, http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/G/Kevin.B.Grier-1/JEBO1994.pdf:
Stella McCartney Black and Bronze Star Binx Slip-on Platforms,On average, the draft clearly matters; higher draft choices raise winning percentages significantly over time. The rookie draft tends to promote competitive balance. Further, relative success in the draft is correlated with on-the-field success (pg. 298).
Christian Louboutin Black Suede Multi Strap Sandal Wedges,The draft tends to balance competition in professional football, as its architects intended it to do (pg.298).According to Ross Booth, Sport Management Review, Comparing Sports Leagues: Does a Salary Cap and Player Draft Measure Up?, 2005, 8, 119–143, http://law.psu.edu/_file/Sports%20Law%20Policy%20and%20Research%20Institute/booth%20comparing%20competitive%20balance.pdf:
Evidence of competitive balance in the AFL is consistent with Booth’s theoretical argument that the introduction of the team salary cap and player draft has improved competitive balance in the AFL (pg.120)
No Comments Yet.
Saint Laurent Laurent Saint Red Yves Tribtoo Platforms 05aaef
- Read more
- Read more
- Read more
- Read more