Tory Burch Vintage Vachetta 55mm Madalena Sandals Platform Wedges,Solution to Address Competition, Innovation and Diversity: Implement a “luxury” competitive balance tax on bidding. The size of the “luxury” bidding tax should be imposed according to the total number of uncontested strings each portfolio Applicant has and the number of strings awarded to the same Applicant after contention resolution (e.g. after a private auction).
Adding the “luxury” tax would help incentivize partnerships. Also it would enable portfolio Applicants to prioritize and not overpay for some gTLDs and focus their attentions on those they would like to focus on which also facilitates innovation. By increasingly raising the luxury tax bid for each successive auction, ICANN will help level the playing field. There are many cases of other industries using efficient mechanisms to promote competition, diversity, and innovation, including: i) Salary cap and Luxury Tax Penalties, ii) Professional Sports Draft, and iii) Spectrum Caps:Stuart Weitzman Black with Embroideried Accents Byline Wedges,
(i) ElyseWalker Los Angeles Natural Luisa Suede Espadrilles Wedges,Salary cap and Competitive Balance Luxury Tax Penalties
In professional sports, a salary cap (or wage cap) is an agreement or rule that places a limit on the amount of money that a sporting club can spend on player salaries. The limit exists as a per-player limit or a total limit for the team’s roster, or both. Several sports leagues have implemented salary caps, both as a method of keeping overall costs down, and to ensure parity between teams so wealthy teams cannot entrench dominanceJ. Reneé White Gemstone Formal Shoes, by signing many more top players than their competitors.There are two main benefits derived from caps – promotion of parity between competitors and control of costs according to studies by:
Christian Louboutin Beige Cork Bianca Platforms,Dietl, H., Lang, M. and Rathke, A. (2009): “The Effect of Salary Caps in Professional Team Sports on Social Welfare”, The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy, Vol. 9, Article 17, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/72_ISU_full.pdf
Dietl, H., Franck, E., Lang, M. and Rathke, A. (2008): “Welfare Effects of Salary Caps in Sports Leagues with Win-Maximizing Clubs”, University of Zurich, ISU Working Paper Series No. 86, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/86_ISU_full.pdf
Lanvin Cream Brown Silver Patent Leather Pump Sandal Slingback 40 Platforms,Dietl, H., Lang, M. and Rathke, A. (2010): “The Combined Effect of Salary Restrictions and Revenue Sharing in Sports Leagues”, forthcoming in Economic Inquiry, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/102_ISU_full.pdf
For example, Major League Baseball implements a luxury tax (also called a competitive balance tax), an arrangement in which teams whose total payroll exceeds a certain figure (determined annually) are taxed on the excess amount in order to discourage large market teams from having a substantially higher payroll than the rest of the league. The tax is paid to the league, which then puts the money into its industry-growth fund (Dietl, H., Lang, M. and Werner, S. (2010): “The Effect of Luxury Taxes on Competitive Balance, Club Profits, and Social Welfare in Sports Leagues”, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/91_ISU_full.pdf).
Proenza Schouler Tan Brown Black Sandal Wedges,A team that goes over the luxury tax cap for the first time in a five-year period pays a penalty of 22.5% of the amount they were over the cap, second-time violators pay a 30% penalty, and teams that exceed the limit three or more times pay a 50% penalty from 2013 onwards. There is also an incentive to lower payroll; if in any year a team goes under the threshold, the penalty rate decreases to 17.5%, 25% or 40% (depending on prior record over the previous five years) for the next time the tax is paid, which will apply from 2013. The cap limit for 2011-2013 is $178 million, and for 2014-2016 $189 million.Primarily,Miu Miu Cranberry Suede Platform W/Ankle Strap Wedges, caps prevent wealthy teams from certain destructive behaviors, such as signing a multitude of high-paid star players to prevent their competitors from accessing talented players and ensuring victory through superior economic power.Saks Fifth Avenue Black Carolee Slingback Patent - 39.5 Wedges, With a cap, each team has nearly the same economic power to attract players, which contributes to parity by producing roughly equal playing talent in each team in the league, and in turn brings economic benefits, both to the league and to its individual teams.UEFA, the governing body of the Champions League, one the world’s most popular leagues in viewership, has implemented a policy called Financial Fair Play (FFP) to protect the game of soccer and level the playing field. The objective of FFP is to ensure that all sports teams can compete equally, to introduce more discipline and rationality in club football finances and to limit the ability of ultra-wealthy billionaire owners (such as Chelsea’s Roman Abramovich or Manchester City’s Sheikh Mansour) to subsidize team expenses. EU law and US anti-trust law are similar in relation to sports since courts:
(i) require evidence of an actual imbalance of competition in the marketplace,
Jimmy Choo Light Gold Perfume Uls/161 Wedges,Tory Burch Beige Astoria 60mm Patent Pump Wedges,Christian Louboutin Leopard Fur Melisa Wedges,Pour La Victoire Black Patent Irina Platforms,Vince Camuto Leopard Print 'deba2' Suede PlatformsStuart Weitzman Beige Patent Leather 8214930 Formal Shoes,Fendi Black Suede Sandal W/ Gold Grommets Platforms,Badgley Mischka Ivory Ginny Formal ShoesLucky Brand Black Neece Suede Mary Jane Animal Print Heels Platforms,Ralph Lauren Collection Black Satin Embellished Sling Heels Formal Shoes,Proenza Schouler Black Lizard Sandals PlatformsRoberto Cavalli White and Purple Suede Elevated Platforms,Christian Louboutin Yellow Canary Patent Leather Platforms,Tory Burch Tan Mini Miller 65mm Open Toe Wedges,Jimmy Choo Tan / Cork / Gold Pandora Metallic Sandal Wedges,Burberry Black Patent Leather with Plaid Trim Crisis Cross Wedges,Havaianas Black Floral High - Platform Wedges,Christian Louboutin Nude Lady Daf 160 Platforms,Christian Louboutin Multi (White/Black/Orange) Highness Ayers Platforms,House of Harlow 1960 Brown Leather PlatformsSergio Rossi Champagne All Over Crystal Peep Toe Stilettos Platforms,Christian Louboutin Cappuccino Madcarina 120 Veau Velours Wedges,Donald J. Pliner Metallic Black Flower WedgesAmalfi Black & White/Red Soles Black/White Open Toe Heels Formal Shoes,Emilio Pucci Multicolor Platforms Sandals WedgesAmalfi Black & White/Red Soles Black/White Open Toe Heels Formal Shoes,Miu Miu Black/White/Silver Strappy Patent Leather Glitter Peep Toe Heels Platforms,Jimmy Choo Smoke Leopard Print Panama Sneaker WedgesSergio Rossi Black Suede Pumps Platforms,Ava & Aiden Jade Dinah Wedges
(ii) allow sports teams to justify any competitive imbalances by demonstrating their legitimate pro-competitive benefits, and
(iii) to block sports teams from pursuing legitimate goals by overly restrictive means.It is clear that the FFP rules do affect “competitive balance.”
According to studies by the Institutue for Strategy and Business Economics at the University of Zurich (Egon Franck (2010), “Private Firm, Public Corporation or Member’s Association – Governance Structures in European Football”, International Journal of Sport Finance, 5(2), 108-127, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/106_ISU_full.pdf) other alternatives could also serve the purpose of leveling the playing field. One example is incorporating revenue-sharing, a common mechanism in professional U.S sports leagues. Another approach is imposing a salary cap based on the size of the league average payroll. Studies have shown that imposing a luxury tax increases competitive balance, especially if tax proceeds are distributed evenly between teams.By ensuring a healthy degree of parity between teams, games are more exciting for the fans and not a foregone conclusion. Sports leagues that have adopted caps because they believe letting richer teams accumulate talent affects the quality of the sporting product they want to sell. If only a handful of dominant teams are able to win consistently and challenge for the championship, many of the contests will be blowouts by the superior team, reducing the sport’s attractiveness for fans at the live events and viewers on television.Salvatore Ferragamo Black Men’s Formal Shoes,
(ii) Professional Sports’ Draft
Stella McCartney New W/ Tag 2015 Resort Sandal Platforms,ICANN’s Bylaws clearly highlight the need for implementing rules to foster competition, diversity and innovation and should follow in the footsteps of other popular and highly successful non-for profits such as the National Football League (NFL). ICANN is formally organized as a non-profit corporation “for charitable and public purposes” under the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law. ICANN was created in 1998 to oversee a number of Internet-related tasks previously performed directly on behalf of the U.S. government by other organizations, notably the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). Before the establishment of ICANN, the United States controlled the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet.
Jimmy Choo Nude Peep Tor Platforms,ICANN could learn insightful lessons from non-for profits such as the NFL on how to make a League (or in ICANN’s case the DNS) highly successful in relation to competition as mandated by its Bylaws. The NFL has a remarkable track record: they are the most successful sports league in the world with nearly $10 billion of revenues in 2012. Furthermore, NFL teams are on average the most lucrative and highly valued sports teams in the world. The average worth of a NFL team is $1.17 billion while in contrast the world’s top 20 soccer teams have a mean value of $968 million.Christian Louboutin Multicolor Chus Pantent Calf Wedges,As a non-for profit organization the NFL implemented the NFL Draft to increase diversity, innovation and competition between NFL teams. In the NFL Draft, the draft order in the NFL is determined in a reverse-record order (the previous season’s worst team picking first, the Super Bowl winner picking last).Other leagues followed suit. In the AFL Draft, clubs receive picks based on the position in which they finish on the ladder. Therefore, the teams that finish at the bottom of the AFL ladder will get the first draft picks. Also, any team that finishes in a low ladder position for consecutive seasons will receive priority picks. The National Hockey League (NHL), another non-for profit organization, implemented the NHL Draft, which allowed all 14 teams that failed to qualify for the playoffs take part in a weighted lottery with the winner moving up as much as four draft positions and no drop more than one draft position.In the NBA Draft, instead of automatically granting the top pick to the worst team from the year before, the NBA holds a draft lottery to determine who chooses first. The top three picks are allocated by chance among the 14 teams that did not make the playoffs the year before. This discourages a team from losing on purpose to get a better draft pick.In the AFL Draft, clubs receive picks based on the position in which they finish on the ladder. Therefore, the teams that finish at the bottom of the AFL ladder will get the first draft picks. Also, any team that finishes in a low ladder position for consecutive seasons will receive priority picks.
Brian Atwood Black Décolleté 140mm Vernice Chic Nera Platforms,Jimmy Choo Gold and Copper Slingback Platforms,SJP by Sarah Jessica Parker Croco Italy Fashion Animal Painting Leather Wedges,Frye Carlie Taupe Leather Platform Wedges,Jessica Simpson Taupe Js By Wedges,Manolo Blahnik Black 69779506 Formal Shoes,Stella McCartney Patent Blue Elyse Platforms,Marni Black Mary Jane Pumps Platforms,Tory Burch Cream Perforated Leather Espadrille Slides Wedges,Jimmy Choo * Polar Black Espadrille Wedges,Express Striped Blue White Flirty Sandals Navy Blue/White Wedges,Salvatore Ferragamo Navy Blue Mustang Calf 8aaaa Brown Formal ShoesNicholas Kirkwood Ocean Blue Leather Pump PlatformsDiane von Furstenberg Pink They Are Suede Stilettos By PlatformsVince Camuto Brown Open-toe 7.5m Wedges,Jeffrey Campbell Blue Bradshaw 2 Suede Crochet Sandal Wedges,Steve Madden Kard Leopard Pony Fur Espadrille Wedges,J.Crew Navy Wedge Strappy Ankle Strap Formal Shoes,Charlotte Olympia Black Gold Canvas Dolly Pumps Leather Heel 40 Dopeek PlatformsAlice + Olivia Black Steffie Leather Cork Wedge Platforms,10 Crosby Derek Lam Black and Yellow Zanzibar Sandal WedgesCole Haan Black Jocelyn D33740 Wedges,Calvin Klein Blac Baylor Snake Wedges,Prada Black Patent Calzature Donna Formal ShoesChristian Louboutin Black Leather Wedges Platforms,Frye Bark Brown Naiya Kiltie Moc Leather Pumps Platforms,Jimmy Choo Beige Suede Bow WedgesJ.Crew Silver Made In Italy Satin Sandal - Wedges,Steve Madden Tan with Blue Red and White WedgesDonald J. Pliner Silver Rona Formal Shoes
According to the Kevin B. Grier, Robert D. Tollison, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, The rookie draft and competitive balance: The case of professional football, Vol. 25, 1994, http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/G/Kevin.B.Grier-1/JEBO1994.pdf:
Joie Black Hot Stuff Wicker Summer Rope Wedges,On average, the draft clearly matters; higher draft choices raise winning percentages significantly over time. The rookie draft tends to promote competitive balance. Further, relative success in the draft is correlated with on-the-field success (pg. 298).
Steven by Steve Madden Multicolor Brynn Bright Wedges,The draft tends to balance competition in professional football, as its architects intended it to do (pg.298).According to Ross Booth, Sport Management Review, Comparing Sports Leagues: Does a Salary Cap and Player Draft Measure Up?, 2005, 8, 119–143, http://law.psu.edu/_file/Sports%20Law%20Policy%20and%20Research%20Institute/booth%20comparing%20competitive%20balance.pdf:
Evidence of competitive balance in the AFL is consistent with Booth’s theoretical argument that the introduction of the team salary cap and player draft has improved competitive balance in the AFL (pg.120)