Dior Black Ruched Cannage Leather Knee High Boots/Booties,Solution to Address Competition, Innovation and Diversity: Implement a “luxury” competitive balance tax on bidding. The size of the “luxury” bidding tax should be imposed according to the total number of uncontested strings each portfolio Applicant has and the number of strings awarded to the same Applicant after contention resolution (e.g. after a private auction).
Adding the “luxury” tax would help incentivize partnerships. Also it would enable portfolio Applicants to prioritize and not overpay for some gTLDs and focus their attentions on those they would like to focus on which also facilitates innovation. By increasingly raising the luxury tax bid for each successive auction, ICANN will help level the playing field. There are many cases of other industries using efficient mechanisms to promote competition, diversity, and innovation, including: i) Salary cap and Luxury Tax Penalties, ii) Professional Sports Draft, and iii) Spectrum Caps:Christian Louboutin Gold Black New Lady Troop 36.5 It Platform Heel Red Sole Buckle Suede Knee High Boots/Booties,
(i) Stuart Weitzman Brown Suede Wedge Short Boots/Booties,Salary cap and Competitive Balance Luxury Tax Penalties
In professional sports, a salary cap (or wage cap) is an agreement or rule that places a limit on the amount of money that a sporting club can spend on player salaries. The limit exists as a per-player limit or a total limit for the team’s roster, or both. Several sports leagues have implemented salary caps, both as a method of keeping overall costs down, and to ensure parity between teams so wealthy teams cannot entrench dominanceDouble-H Boots Brown Mens Ag7 Ranch Wellington 2522 Boots/Booties, by signing many more top players than their competitors.There are two main benefits derived from caps – promotion of parity between competitors and control of costs according to studies by:
Donald J. Pliner Charcoal Western Couture Collection Boots/Booties,Dietl, H., Lang, M. and Rathke, A. (2009): “The Effect of Salary Caps in Professional Team Sports on Social Welfare”, The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy, Vol. 9, Article 17, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/72_ISU_full.pdf
Dietl, H., Franck, E., Lang, M. and Rathke, A. (2008): “Welfare Effects of Salary Caps in Sports Leagues with Win-Maximizing Clubs”, University of Zurich, ISU Working Paper Series No. 86, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/86_ISU_full.pdf
Rebecca Minkoff Grey & Black Maggie Boots/Booties,Dietl, H., Lang, M. and Rathke, A. (2010): “The Combined Effect of Salary Restrictions and Revenue Sharing in Sports Leagues”, forthcoming in Economic Inquiry, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/102_ISU_full.pdf
For example, Major League Baseball implements a luxury tax (also called a competitive balance tax), an arrangement in which teams whose total payroll exceeds a certain figure (determined annually) are taxed on the excess amount in order to discourage large market teams from having a substantially higher payroll than the rest of the league. The tax is paid to the league, which then puts the money into its industry-growth fund (Dietl, H., Lang, M. and Werner, S. (2010): “The Effect of Luxury Taxes on Competitive Balance, Club Profits, and Social Welfare in Sports Leagues”, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/91_ISU_full.pdf).
Christian Louboutin Black Napaleona 70 Spike Chain Knee Heel 37 Boots/Booties,A team that goes over the luxury tax cap for the first time in a five-year period pays a penalty of 22.5% of the amount they were over the cap, second-time violators pay a 30% penalty, and teams that exceed the limit three or more times pay a 50% penalty from 2013 onwards. There is also an incentive to lower payroll; if in any year a team goes under the threshold, the penalty rate decreases to 17.5%, 25% or 40% (depending on prior record over the previous five years) for the next time the tax is paid, which will apply from 2013. The cap limit for 2011-2013 is $178 million, and for 2014-2016 $189 million.Primarily,Jimmy Choo Black Deeta Tall Suede Leather Fox Fur Boots/Booties, caps prevent wealthy teams from certain destructive behaviors, such as signing a multitude of high-paid star players to prevent their competitors from accessing talented players and ensuring victory through superior economic power.Diba Brown Zipper Chuck Heel Boots/Booties, With a cap, each team has nearly the same economic power to attract players, which contributes to parity by producing roughly equal playing talent in each team in the league, and in turn brings economic benefits, both to the league and to its individual teams.UEFA, the governing body of the Champions League, one the world’s most popular leagues in viewership, has implemented a policy called Financial Fair Play (FFP) to protect the game of soccer and level the playing field. The objective of FFP is to ensure that all sports teams can compete equally, to introduce more discipline and rationality in club football finances and to limit the ability of ultra-wealthy billionaire owners (such as Chelsea’s Roman Abramovich or Manchester City’s Sheikh Mansour) to subsidize team expenses. EU law and US anti-trust law are similar in relation to sports since courts:
(i) require evidence of an actual imbalance of competition in the marketplace,
Christian Louboutin Black Crochinetta 100 Suede Velour Pointed Toe Platform Ankle Heel Boots/Booties,Christian Louboutin Black Tres Contente 39 It Platform Thigh High Knee Heel Lady Red Leather Boots/Booties,Saint Laurent Black Suede Babies Star Chelsea Stretch Ankle Ysl Boots/Booties,Barneys Co-Op Black Tall Leather Boots/Booties,Brunello Cucinelli Brown Women Monili Knee High Leather Boots/Booties,Frye Brown 77455 Harness 8 R Pull On Motorcycle Women's Boots/Booties,AllSaints Black Damisi Spitalfields Combat Boots/BootiesZara Black Over Knee Pointy Suede Leather Thigh High Heel Pointed Stiletto 39 Boots/Booties,Vince Black Addie Peep Toe Boots/Booties Boots/Booties,Tory Burch Black Mae Logo Studded Boots/Booties,Kork-Ease Black Velma- Leather Pull-on Boots/Booties,Ralph Lauren Brown Devi Suede and Shearling Boots/Booties,Christian Louboutin Black Ishtar 100 Leather Ankle Heel 38 Boots/Booties,Brown Womens Leather Boots/Booties,Jimmy Choo Black Youth Leather Ankle Boots/Booties,Stuart Weitzman Cola Brown 5050 Over The Knee Otk Suede Boots/BootiesStuart Weitzman White and Black Boots/Booties,Columbia Sportswear Company Brown Women's 10/Eu 41 Winter-snow Ankle Faux Fur Boots/Booties,Stuart Weitzman Black Brown Leather Ankle M Boots/Booties,Stuart Weitzman Black Nappa Leather Demistrong Over The Knee Boots/BootiesFranco Sarto Dark Brown Suede Willow B3755m2202 Boots/Booties,Free People Black Bright Lights Over The Knee Patchwork Boots/Booties,Dr. Martens Black Women`s Louise Smooth Tall Usa Boots/Booties,twiggy LONDON Reddish Brown Bailey Riding Boots/Booties,Acne Studios Black White Ankle with Front Stripe Closure and Details. Boots/Booties,Bed|Stü Black Lux Becca Distressed Boots/Booties,Tory Burch Black Blaire Riding 7) Boots/BootiesVivienne Westwood Dark Brown Anglomania Skyscraper Oxford Boots/BootiesGiuseppe Zanotti Black New Women Velvet Leather High-top Metal Strap Sneaker Eu 39 Boots/Booties,Blondo Black Women's Knee High Waterproof Leather New Boots/Booties
(ii) allow sports teams to justify any competitive imbalances by demonstrating their legitimate pro-competitive benefits, and
(iii) to block sports teams from pursuing legitimate goals by overly restrictive means.It is clear that the FFP rules do affect “competitive balance.”
According to studies by the Institutue for Strategy and Business Economics at the University of Zurich (Egon Franck (2010), “Private Firm, Public Corporation or Member’s Association – Governance Structures in European Football”, International Journal of Sport Finance, 5(2), 108-127, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/106_ISU_full.pdf) other alternatives could also serve the purpose of leveling the playing field. One example is incorporating revenue-sharing, a common mechanism in professional U.S sports leagues. Another approach is imposing a salary cap based on the size of the league average payroll. Studies have shown that imposing a luxury tax increases competitive balance, especially if tax proceeds are distributed evenly between teams.By ensuring a healthy degree of parity between teams, games are more exciting for the fans and not a foregone conclusion. Sports leagues that have adopted caps because they believe letting richer teams accumulate talent affects the quality of the sporting product they want to sell. If only a handful of dominant teams are able to win consistently and challenge for the championship, many of the contests will be blowouts by the superior team, reducing the sport’s attractiveness for fans at the live events and viewers on television.Ralph Lauren Collection Brown & Olive Boots/Booties,
(ii) Professional Sports’ Draft
Dan Post Boots Black R1180 Boots/Booties,ICANN’s Bylaws clearly highlight the need for implementing rules to foster competition, diversity and innovation and should follow in the footsteps of other popular and highly successful non-for profits such as the National Football League (NFL). ICANN is formally organized as a non-profit corporation “for charitable and public purposes” under the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law. ICANN was created in 1998 to oversee a number of Internet-related tasks previously performed directly on behalf of the U.S. government by other organizations, notably the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). Before the establishment of ICANN, the United States controlled the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet.
100% Guaranteed Authentic
* PAUL GREEN SLIP-ON BOOTIE *
MADE IN AUSTRIA
SIZE: Women's US 6.5 , UK 4
*** Shipped Priority or FedEx Fast (on same or next day), Mailed to Your Door, And Packed With Care! YOU WILL LOVE IT! **
- STYLE: 7108-419 Nisha Bootie
- COLOR: Black Suede
- CONDITION: Brand New/clearance in original box
~~ Please, check the pic for more detail. Actual item shown
Elastic side goring
Gently rounded toe
Signature pull-tab at heel
Lightly padded leather insole
* 1" stacked block heel
* Boot shaft: 4"
* Boot circumference: 9" unstretched
*Please note that measurements were taken by hand
Stuart Weitzman Black Slouchy Smashing Boots/Booties,ICANN could learn insightful lessons from non-for profits such as the NFL on how to make a League (or in ICANN’s case the DNS) highly successful in relation to competition as mandated by its Bylaws. The NFL has a remarkable track record: they are the most successful sports league in the world with nearly $10 billion of revenues in 2012. Furthermore, NFL teams are on average the most lucrative and highly valued sports teams in the world. The average worth of a NFL team is $1.17 billion while in contrast the world’s top 20 soccer teams have a mean value of $968 million.Stuart Weitzman Black Bacari Pear Stud Heel Boots/Booties,As a non-for profit organization the NFL implemented the NFL Draft to increase diversity, innovation and competition between NFL teams. In the NFL Draft, the draft order in the NFL is determined in a reverse-record order (the previous season’s worst team picking first, the Super Bowl winner picking last).Other leagues followed suit. In the AFL Draft, clubs receive picks based on the position in which they finish on the ladder. Therefore, the teams that finish at the bottom of the AFL ladder will get the first draft picks. Also, any team that finishes in a low ladder position for consecutive seasons will receive priority picks. The National Hockey League (NHL), another non-for profit organization, implemented the NHL Draft, which allowed all 14 teams that failed to qualify for the playoffs take part in a weighted lottery with the winner moving up as much as four draft positions and no drop more than one draft position.In the NBA Draft, instead of automatically granting the top pick to the worst team from the year before, the NBA holds a draft lottery to determine who chooses first. The top three picks are allocated by chance among the 14 teams that did not make the playoffs the year before. This discourages a team from losing on purpose to get a better draft pick.In the AFL Draft, clubs receive picks based on the position in which they finish on the ladder. Therefore, the teams that finish at the bottom of the AFL ladder will get the first draft picks. Also, any team that finishes in a low ladder position for consecutive seasons will receive priority picks.
Stuart Weitzman Black Leather Pentagon Riding Knee High Boots/Booties,Gianvito Rossi Black Shabion Belted Boots/BootiesMadden Girl Tan with Brown Boots/Booties,A.P.C. Brown Madras Suede Cutout Boots/Booties,Madewell Black The Conor Over-the-knee Boots/Booties,Zara Black New Box Fringe Leather Suede Heels Ankle Boots/Booties,Christian Louboutin Black Fifre Corset 36.5 It Platform High Heel Button Red Sole Suede Ankle Boots/BootiesDior Brown 36.5 Tapestry Floral Butterfly Embroidered Ankle Round Toe Boots/Booties,Tory Burch Brown Sofia Riding Boots/Booties,Frye Brown Celia Shearling Tan Riding Knee High Suede Leather Skiing Boots/BootiesSergio Rossi Black Leather Stretch Boots/Booties,Chloé Black Susanna Studded Ankle Boots/BootiesChristian Louboutin Black Square-toe Ankle Boots/Booties,Miu Miu Brown Gold Studded Leather Motorcycle Boots/Booties,Enzo Angiolini Dark Brown Venado Moto Boots/Booties,Cole Haan Black Waterproof Extended Calf Hastings Boots/Booties,Aquatalia Black Leather Buckled Weatherproof Moto Boots/Booties,Emilio Pucci Black Suede 744954 Boots/Booties,Brown Vintage Leather Boots/BootiesHervé Leger Brown Suede Ankle Boots/BootiesSam Edelman Black Josephine Fringe Slouch Suede Leather Pull Boots/Booties,Frye Black Men’s Harness 12r Boots/Booties,Christian Louboutin Black Marisa 35.5 It Leather Studded Motorcycle Platform Knee High Heel Lady Boots/BootiesDolce&Gabbana Brown Leather Knee High Silver Heel 39.5 New Boots/Booties,Louise et Cie Brown New Lo Zada Leather Knee High Boots/Booties,Rag & Bone Black Harper Moto Boots/Booties,Black Hannie Leather Platform Boots/Booties,Burberry Black Allen Leather 37.5/7.5 Boots/BootiesAlexander Wang Black Leather 'britt' Cut-out Ankle Boots/Booties,Paul Green Brown Cayanne Leather Peep Boots/Booties,
According to the Kevin B. Grier, Robert D. Tollison, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, The rookie draft and competitive balance: The case of professional football, Vol. 25, 1994, http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/G/Kevin.B.Grier-1/JEBO1994.pdf:
Rag & Bone Brown And Monk Strap Women's Boots/Booties,On average, the draft clearly matters; higher draft choices raise winning percentages significantly over time. The rookie draft tends to promote competitive balance. Further, relative success in the draft is correlated with on-the-field success (pg. 298).
Hunter Brown Tall Adjustable Wellington Boots/Booties,The draft tends to balance competition in professional football, as its architects intended it to do (pg.298).According to Ross Booth, Sport Management Review, Comparing Sports Leagues: Does a Salary Cap and Player Draft Measure Up?, 2005, 8, 119–143, http://law.psu.edu/_file/Sports%20Law%20Policy%20and%20Research%20Institute/booth%20comparing%20competitive%20balance.pdf:
Evidence of competitive balance in the AFL is consistent with Booth’s theoretical argument that the introduction of the team salary cap and player draft has improved competitive balance in the AFL (pg.120)
No Comments Yet.
Paul Green Black Nisha Suede Elastic Uk4 Gore Ankle Chukka Flat Uk4 Elastic Boots/Booties 3c6b23
- Read more
- Read more
- Read more
- Read more