Fiorentini + Baker Dark Brown Eternity 3 Buckle Boots/Booties,Solution to Address Competition, Innovation and Diversity: Implement a “luxury” competitive balance tax on bidding. The size of the “luxury” bidding tax should be imposed according to the total number of uncontested strings each portfolio Applicant has and the number of strings awarded to the same Applicant after contention resolution (e.g. after a private auction).
Adding the “luxury” tax would help incentivize partnerships. Also it would enable portfolio Applicants to prioritize and not overpay for some gTLDs and focus their attentions on those they would like to focus on which also facilitates innovation. By increasingly raising the luxury tax bid for each successive auction, ICANN will help level the playing field. There are many cases of other industries using efficient mechanisms to promote competition, diversity, and innovation, including: i) Salary cap and Luxury Tax Penalties, ii) Professional Sports Draft, and iii) Spectrum Caps:Donald J. Pliner Black Crocodile Pattern Nellie Boots/Booties,
(i) Frye Black New Over The Knee Tall Women’s Boots/Booties,Salary cap and Competitive Balance Luxury Tax Penalties
In professional sports, a salary cap (or wage cap) is an agreement or rule that places a limit on the amount of money that a sporting club can spend on player salaries. The limit exists as a per-player limit or a total limit for the team’s roster, or both. Several sports leagues have implemented salary caps, both as a method of keeping overall costs down, and to ensure parity between teams so wealthy teams cannot entrench dominanceAquazzura Black Brooklyn Oriental Rose Floral Jacquard Boots/Booties, by signing many more top players than their competitors.There are two main benefits derived from caps – promotion of parity between competitors and control of costs according to studies by:
Elena Solano Brown M Very Good Condition Boots/Booties,Dietl, H., Lang, M. and Rathke, A. (2009): “The Effect of Salary Caps in Professional Team Sports on Social Welfare”, The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy, Vol. 9, Article 17, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/72_ISU_full.pdf
Dietl, H., Franck, E., Lang, M. and Rathke, A. (2008): “Welfare Effects of Salary Caps in Sports Leagues with Win-Maximizing Clubs”, University of Zurich, ISU Working Paper Series No. 86, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/86_ISU_full.pdf
LifeStride Brown 0992 Womens Maximize Belted Riding Medium (B Boots/Booties,Dietl, H., Lang, M. and Rathke, A. (2010): “The Combined Effect of Salary Restrictions and Revenue Sharing in Sports Leagues”, forthcoming in Economic Inquiry, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/102_ISU_full.pdf
For example, Major League Baseball implements a luxury tax (also called a competitive balance tax), an arrangement in which teams whose total payroll exceeds a certain figure (determined annually) are taxed on the excess amount in order to discourage large market teams from having a substantially higher payroll than the rest of the league. The tax is paid to the league, which then puts the money into its industry-growth fund (Dietl, H., Lang, M. and Werner, S. (2010): “The Effect of Luxury Taxes on Competitive Balance, Club Profits, and Social Welfare in Sports Leagues”, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/91_ISU_full.pdf).
MCQ by Alexander McQueen Black Broadway Leather Women Boots/Booties,A team that goes over the luxury tax cap for the first time in a five-year period pays a penalty of 22.5% of the amount they were over the cap, second-time violators pay a 30% penalty, and teams that exceed the limit three or more times pay a 50% penalty from 2013 onwards. There is also an incentive to lower payroll; if in any year a team goes under the threshold, the penalty rate decreases to 17.5%, 25% or 40% (depending on prior record over the previous five years) for the next time the tax is paid, which will apply from 2013. The cap limit for 2011-2013 is $178 million, and for 2014-2016 $189 million.Primarily,Sam Edelman Black Suede Kayla Over The Knee M (T3) Boots/Booties, caps prevent wealthy teams from certain destructive behaviors, such as signing a multitude of high-paid star players to prevent their competitors from accessing talented players and ensuring victory through superior economic power.Valentino Black Rockstud Studded Buckled Strap Leather Knee High Tall Heels Boots/Booties, With a cap, each team has nearly the same economic power to attract players, which contributes to parity by producing roughly equal playing talent in each team in the league, and in turn brings economic benefits, both to the league and to its individual teams.UEFA, the governing body of the Champions League, one the world’s most popular leagues in viewership, has implemented a policy called Financial Fair Play (FFP) to protect the game of soccer and level the playing field. The objective of FFP is to ensure that all sports teams can compete equally, to introduce more discipline and rationality in club football finances and to limit the ability of ultra-wealthy billionaire owners (such as Chelsea’s Roman Abramovich or Manchester City’s Sheikh Mansour) to subsidize team expenses. EU law and US anti-trust law are similar in relation to sports since courts:
(i) require evidence of an actual imbalance of competition in the marketplace,
Rag & Bone Black Ankle Harrow Boots/BootiesManolo Blahnik Black Women's Sulgamba Leather Ankle - 37. Boots/Booties,Burberry Brown Patent Leather Riding 39 Made In Italy Boots/Booties,Rag & Bone Brown And Dolgan Boots/BootiesBlack and Brown Boots/Booties,Christian Louboutin Black Orniron 100 Seta Calf Boots/Booties,Sigerson Morrison Brown New Suede Kitten Heel Pointed Toe Knee Button Boots/Booties,Minnetonka Brown Suede Fringed Wedge Boots/BootiesStuart Weitzman Black Hiyola Blasue Boots/Booties,Ralph Lauren Brown Collection Leather Ankle Boots/Booties,Tory Burch Black New In Box Grove Peep Toe Leather Ankle Boots/Booties,Tory Burch Black Oak Ridge Boots/Booties,Pedro Garcia Dark Brown Abbie Boots/Booties,Rag & Bone Light Black Suede Harrow Boots/BootiesTory Burch Black Suede Jenna Logo Buckle Strap Tall Knee High Riding Boots/BootiesCole Haan Black Air Nessa Boots/Booties,Brunello Cucinelli Brown Monili Biker Boots/BootiesStuart Weitzman Black Wedge 5050 Boots/BootiesAquatalia Black Orella Suede 34l0901 Boots/BootiesAnthropologie Light Brown New (Sixty Seven) Suede Boots/Booties,Balenciaga Black New Tall Riding R38.5 L38 Boots/Booties,Free People Black Suede Aquarian Boots/Booties,Dolce&Gabbana * Black Portofino Sneakers Boots/BootiesLouise et Cie Black Combo Tyana - Colorblock Peep-toe New Boots/BootiesBrown Womens Leather Boots/Booties,Splendid Black Dale Suede Ankle Boots/Booties,Pour La Victoire Black 'wilson' Buckle-strap Boots/Booties,Giorgio Armani Brown Leather Ankle Euro Boots/BootiesG.H. Bass & Co. Brown Sophia Western Ankle Whiskey / 39 Eu Boots/Booties,Old Gringo Soro Chocolate with Peach Floral Embroidery 8" Sku L841-18 Boots/Booties
(ii) allow sports teams to justify any competitive imbalances by demonstrating their legitimate pro-competitive benefits, and
(iii) to block sports teams from pursuing legitimate goals by overly restrictive means.It is clear that the FFP rules do affect “competitive balance.”
According to studies by the Institutue for Strategy and Business Economics at the University of Zurich (Egon Franck (2010), “Private Firm, Public Corporation or Member’s Association – Governance Structures in European Football”, International Journal of Sport Finance, 5(2), 108-127, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/106_ISU_full.pdf) other alternatives could also serve the purpose of leveling the playing field. One example is incorporating revenue-sharing, a common mechanism in professional U.S sports leagues. Another approach is imposing a salary cap based on the size of the league average payroll. Studies have shown that imposing a luxury tax increases competitive balance, especially if tax proceeds are distributed evenly between teams.By ensuring a healthy degree of parity between teams, games are more exciting for the fans and not a foregone conclusion. Sports leagues that have adopted caps because they believe letting richer teams accumulate talent affects the quality of the sporting product they want to sell. If only a handful of dominant teams are able to win consistently and challenge for the championship, many of the contests will be blowouts by the superior team, reducing the sport’s attractiveness for fans at the live events and viewers on television.Rag & Bone Black/Brown Moka Kendall Boots/Booties,
(ii) Professional Sports’ Draft
Frye Brown Leather Harness Motorcycle Style # 77307 Boots/Booties,ICANN’s Bylaws clearly highlight the need for implementing rules to foster competition, diversity and innovation and should follow in the footsteps of other popular and highly successful non-for profits such as the National Football League (NFL). ICANN is formally organized as a non-profit corporation “for charitable and public purposes” under the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law. ICANN was created in 1998 to oversee a number of Internet-related tasks previously performed directly on behalf of the U.S. government by other organizations, notably the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). Before the establishment of ICANN, the United States controlled the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet.
Via Spiga Bethany Brown Leather knee-high heel Boots.
condition: Floor pair, very minor scuffs from being without box and being tried inside store
size 7 M
Almond shape toe boot crafted from supple leather with an elegant straight 4" heel and side zip closure.
Leather upper, lining and sole.
4" heel, 14" calf circumference, 14. 1/8" top opening circumference and 14.50" tall on the back (heel is not included)
Steven Alan Dark Brown Jodhpur Calf Leather Boots/Booties,ICANN could learn insightful lessons from non-for profits such as the NFL on how to make a League (or in ICANN’s case the DNS) highly successful in relation to competition as mandated by its Bylaws. The NFL has a remarkable track record: they are the most successful sports league in the world with nearly $10 billion of revenues in 2012. Furthermore, NFL teams are on average the most lucrative and highly valued sports teams in the world. The average worth of a NFL team is $1.17 billion while in contrast the world’s top 20 soccer teams have a mean value of $968 million.Prada Black Leather Patent Knee High Boots/Booties,As a non-for profit organization the NFL implemented the NFL Draft to increase diversity, innovation and competition between NFL teams. In the NFL Draft, the draft order in the NFL is determined in a reverse-record order (the previous season’s worst team picking first, the Super Bowl winner picking last).Other leagues followed suit. In the AFL Draft, clubs receive picks based on the position in which they finish on the ladder. Therefore, the teams that finish at the bottom of the AFL ladder will get the first draft picks. Also, any team that finishes in a low ladder position for consecutive seasons will receive priority picks. The National Hockey League (NHL), another non-for profit organization, implemented the NHL Draft, which allowed all 14 teams that failed to qualify for the playoffs take part in a weighted lottery with the winner moving up as much as four draft positions and no drop more than one draft position.In the NBA Draft, instead of automatically granting the top pick to the worst team from the year before, the NBA holds a draft lottery to determine who chooses first. The top three picks are allocated by chance among the 14 teams that did not make the playoffs the year before. This discourages a team from losing on purpose to get a better draft pick.In the AFL Draft, clubs receive picks based on the position in which they finish on the ladder. Therefore, the teams that finish at the bottom of the AFL ladder will get the first draft picks. Also, any team that finishes in a low ladder position for consecutive seasons will receive priority picks.
SM New York Tan Or Brown 22731 Corey Boots/BootiesFrye Black New "Melissa Button Zip Short" 76501 Leather Ankle Boots/Booties,Givenchy Black Chain Knee High Boots/Booties,Miu Miu Black Platform Suede Over Ankle Boots/Booties,Black & Brown 451 Two Tone Soft Leather Pointed Toe Cowboy Boots/Booties,Brown Cowboy 9 10 Boots/Booties,Black Water Resistant Buckle Strap Motorcycle 1669 Boots/Booties,Tory Burch Black Blossom 90 Calf Leather Boots/Booties,Céline Black Lambskin Leather Zipper Detail Boots/Booties,Prada Brown Calzature Donna Scamosciato Boots/Booties,Cole Haan Black and Brown Air Georgina Two-tone Leather Tall Boots/Booties,Blue Brown & Black Insulated Rubber Duck Boots/Booties,Alexander Wang Black Pleated Leather Boots/Booties,Stuart Weitzman Black 5050 (Knee Length) Boots/Booties,Stuart Weitzman Black Suede Highland-promo Lb50 Boots/Booties,Saint Laurent Camel Brown Classic Babies Suede Leather 90mm Logo Ankle Boots/Booties,Tory Burch Dark Brown Eloise Riding Boots/BootiesHunter Black High Gloss Tall Rain Boots/Bootiesétoile Isabel Marant Black Suede Dicker Western Cowboy Ankle Boots/Booties,Saint Laurent Black Tribute Ysl Shearling Leather 35.5 Boots/Booties,Eürosoft by S?fft Dark Chocolate Ankle Boots/Booties,Qupid Brown/Chocolate with Black Heel/Sole Boots/BootiesHunter Black & Red Tall Rain Buckle Boots/Booties,Zara Black Leather and Metal Heel Boots/Booties,Christian Louboutin Black Suede Over The Knees (151937) Boots/Booties,Cole Haan Black Air Avalon Riding Boots/BootiesFrye Brown 76795 Jenna Studded Short Leather Motorcycle Boots/BootiesBottega Veneta Brown Intrecciato Knee-high Leather Pull On 10 Boots/BootiesVia Spiga Black Kaia Over The Knee Boots/Booties,Giuseppe Zanotti Black New Men Leather Fabric Puffy Ankle High-top Sneakers Boots/Booties,
According to the Kevin B. Grier, Robert D. Tollison, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, The rookie draft and competitive balance: The case of professional football, Vol. 25, 1994, http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/G/Kevin.B.Grier-1/JEBO1994.pdf:
Chloé Black See By Knee-high Pebbled Leather Boots/Booties,On average, the draft clearly matters; higher draft choices raise winning percentages significantly over time. The rookie draft tends to promote competitive balance. Further, relative success in the draft is correlated with on-the-field success (pg. 298).
Jimmy Choo Black Slim Fit Boots/Booties,The draft tends to balance competition in professional football, as its architects intended it to do (pg.298).According to Ross Booth, Sport Management Review, Comparing Sports Leagues: Does a Salary Cap and Player Draft Measure Up?, 2005, 8, 119–143, http://law.psu.edu/_file/Sports%20Law%20Policy%20and%20Research%20Institute/booth%20comparing%20competitive%20balance.pdf:
Evidence of competitive balance in the AFL is consistent with Booth’s theoretical argument that the introduction of the team salary cap and player draft has improved competitive balance in the AFL (pg.120)
No Comments Yet.
Via Spiga Brown Bethany Leather Boots/Booties Knee-high Heel Boots/Booties Leather 4858a6
- Read more
- Read more
- Read more
- Read more