Christian Patent Louboutin Hyper Prive 120-black Patent Christian Platforms 5f92c3

Christian Patent Louboutin Hyper Prive 120-black Patent Christian Platforms 5f92c3
.MUSIC (DotMusic)

.MUSIC Community Top-Level Domain gTLD by DotMusic

Christian Patent Louboutin Hyper Prive 120-black Patent Christian Platforms 5f92c3

 

Christian Louboutin Black Patent Super Dombasle 160 Platforms,Solution to Address Competition, Innovation and Diversity: Implement a “luxury” competitive balance tax on bidding. The size of the “luxury” bidding tax should be imposed according to the total number of uncontested strings each portfolio Applicant has and the number of strings awarded to the same Applicant after contention resolution (e.g. after a private auction).

Adding the “luxury” tax would help incentivize partnerships. Also it would enable portfolio Applicants to prioritize and not overpay for some gTLDs and focus their attentions on those they would like to focus on which also facilitates innovation. By increasingly raising the luxury tax bid for each successive auction, ICANN will help level the playing field. There are many cases of other industries using efficient mechanisms to promote competition, diversity, and innovation, including: i) Salary cap and Luxury Tax Penalties, ii) Professional Sports Draft, and iii) Spectrum Caps:Giuseppe Zanotti Yellow Wood Color Back and Heel Platforms,

(i) Roberto Cavalli Red Womens Patent Slip Ons Platforms,Salary cap and Competitive Balance Luxury Tax Penalties

In professional sports, a salary cap (or wage cap) is an agreement or rule that places a limit on the amount of money that a sporting club can spend on player salaries. The limit exists as a per-player limit or a total limit for the team’s roster, or both. Several sports leagues have implemented salary caps, both as a method of keeping overall costs down, and to ensure parity between teams so wealthy teams cannot entrench dominanceChristian Louboutin Black Rolando 38 Patent Platforms, by signing many more top players than their competitors.There are two main benefits derived from caps – promotion of parity between competitors and control of costs according to studies by:

Christian Louboutin Black Jem 160 Leather Detail Slingback Pump Platforms,Dietl, H., Lang, M. and Rathke, A. (2009): “The Effect of Salary Caps in Professional Team Sports on Social Welfare”, The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy, Vol. 9, Article 17, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/72_ISU_full.pdf

Dietl, H., Franck, E., Lang, M. and Rathke, A. (2008): “Welfare Effects of Salary Caps in Sports Leagues with Win-Maximizing Clubs”, University of Zurich, ISU Working Paper Series No. 86, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/86_ISU_full.pdf

Christian Louboutin Latte/Black Patent Leather Platforms,Dietl, H., Lang, M. and Rathke, A. (2010): “The Combined Effect of Salary Restrictions and Revenue Sharing in Sports Leagues”, forthcoming in Economic Inquiry, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/102_ISU_full.pdf

For example, Major League Baseball implements a luxury tax (also called a competitive balance tax), an arrangement in which teams whose total payroll exceeds a certain figure (determined annually) are taxed on the excess amount in order to discourage large market teams from having a substantially higher payroll than the rest of the league. The tax is paid to the league, which then puts the money into its industry-growth fund (Dietl, H., Lang, M. and Werner, S. (2010): “The Effect of Luxury Taxes on Competitive Balance, Club Profits, and Social Welfare in Sports Leagues”, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/91_ISU_full.pdf).

Christian Louboutin Nude Purple and Yellow Bianca Sling Patent Calf Platforms,A team that goes over the luxury tax cap for the first time in a five-year period pays a penalty of 22.5% of the amount they were over the cap, second-time violators pay a 30% penalty, and teams that exceed the limit three or more times pay a 50% penalty from 2013 onwards. There is also an incentive to lower payroll; if in any year a team goes under the threshold, the penalty rate decreases to 17.5%, 25% or 40% (depending on prior record over the previous five years) for the next time the tax is paid, which will apply from 2013. The cap limit for 2011-2013 is $178 million, and for 2014-2016 $189 million.Primarily,Givenchy Black Shark Lock Sandal Platforms, caps prevent wealthy teams from certain destructive behaviors, such as signing a multitude of high-paid star players to prevent their competitors from accessing talented players and ensuring victory through superior economic power.Christian Louboutin Black Patent Lady Peep Platforms, With a cap, each team has nearly the same economic power to attract players, which contributes to parity by producing roughly equal playing talent in each team in the league, and in turn brings economic benefits, both to the league and to its individual teams.UEFA, the governing body of the Champions League, one the world’s most popular leagues in viewership, has implemented a policy called Financial Fair Play (FFP) to protect the game of soccer and level the playing field. The objective of FFP is to ensure that all sports teams can compete equally, to introduce more discipline and rationality in club football finances and to limit the ability of ultra-wealthy billionaire owners (such as Chelsea’s Roman Abramovich or Manchester City’s Sheikh Mansour) to subsidize team expenses. EU law and US anti-trust law are similar in relation to sports since courts:

(i) require evidence of an actual imbalance of competition in the marketplace,

Tommy Bahama White Naira Sandal Wedges,Rebecca Minkoff Sand Suede Leather Elle Wedges,Saint Laurent Black Tribute T-strap Sandal Platforms,Jimmy Choo Grey Snake Embossed Leather Papyrus Cork Ankle Strap Sandals Wedges,Badgley Mischka Blush Petrina D'orsay Decorated Evening Formal Shoes,Giuseppe Zanotti Black Leather Caged Platforms,Christian Louboutin White/Light Gold Catalclou 140 Cork Mat Wedges,Burberry Black Espadrille Sandals - Wedges,Burberry Multi Color Plaid Designer Unique Wedges,Christian Louboutin Black Very Prive 120 Heels Platforms,Prada Green and Black Snakeskin Peep Toe & Wedges Platforms,Manolo Blahnik Black Satin Mules Formal Shoes,Mossimo Supply Co. Nude Pembroke Wedges,Saint Laurent Blush Yves Satin Wedges Platforms,Jimmy Choo Anthracite Velvet Lana 100 Pumps,Colin Stuart Tan Flower Sandal Platforms,Nine West Peep Toe Detailed WedgesTory Burch Black Leather Peep Toe WedgesPrada Purple 3” Stiletto Formal Shoes,Nina Gold Baby Glitter Formal ShoesStella McCartney Nude Elyse Star Platform Wedges,Donald J. Pliner Greenish Brown Cathie WedgesMarc by Marc Jacobs Black Jane Platforms,Jou Jou Red Leather Sandals Nwot Wedges,Tory Burch Navy Peep Toe WedgesPrivileged Teal and Gold Duchess Platforms,Ivanka Trump Light Gold Nanci Formal Shoes,Christian Louboutin Black Toutenkaboucle 150 Suede Platforms,Tory Burch Black New Wooden Clog Heels Platforms,Giani Bernini Black Style ''elya". with Metal Ornament Wedges,

(ii) allow sports teams to justify any competitive imbalances by demonstrating their legitimate pro-competitive benefits, and

(iii) to block sports teams from pursuing legitimate goals by overly restrictive means.It is clear that the FFP rules do affect “competitive balance.”

According to studies by the Institutue for Strategy and Business Economics at the University of Zurich (Egon Franck (2010), “Private Firm, Public Corporation or Member’s Association – Governance Structures in European Football”, International Journal of Sport Finance, 5(2), 108-127, http://www.isu.uzh.ch/static/ISU_WPS/106_ISU_full.pdf) other alternatives could also serve the purpose of leveling the playing field. One example is incorporating revenue-sharing, a common mechanism in professional U.S sports leagues. Another approach is imposing a salary cap based on the size of the league average payroll. Studies have shown that imposing a luxury tax increases competitive balance, especially if tax proceeds are distributed evenly between teams.By ensuring a healthy degree of parity between teams, games are more exciting for the fans and not a foregone conclusion. Sports leagues that have adopted caps because they believe letting richer teams accumulate talent affects the quality of the sporting product they want to sell. If only a handful of dominant teams are able to win consistently and challenge for the championship, many of the contests will be blowouts by the superior team, reducing the sport’s attractiveness for fans at the live events and viewers on television.Christian Louboutin Tan Spiked Heels Platforms,

(ii) Professional Sports’ Draft

Christian Louboutin Black Satin Sandal Platforms,ICANN’s Bylaws clearly highlight the need for implementing rules to foster competition, diversity and innovation and should follow in the footsteps of other popular and highly successful non-for profits such as the National Football League (NFL). ICANN is formally organized as a non-profit corporation “for charitable and public purposes” under the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law. ICANN was created in 1998 to oversee a number of Internet-related tasks previously performed directly on behalf of the U.S. government by other organizations, notably the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). Before the establishment of ICANN, the United States controlled the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet.

Description

Great condition platform pumps. Heels tips are brand new as they were recently replaced. Very comfortable shoe due to platform. Comes with oringinal dust bags and box.

Christian Louboutin Black 120 Rolando Patent Platforms,ICANN could learn insightful lessons from non-for profits such as the NFL on how to make a League (or in ICANN’s case the DNS) highly successful in relation to competition as mandated by its Bylaws. The NFL has a remarkable track record: they are the most successful sports league in the world with nearly $10 billion of revenues in 2012. Furthermore, NFL teams are on average the most lucrative and highly valued sports teams in the world. The average worth of a NFL team is $1.17 billion while in contrast the world’s top 20 soccer teams have a mean value of $968 million.Giuseppe Zanotti Beigne & White 'santrio' Platforms,As a non-for profit organization the NFL implemented the NFL Draft to increase diversity, innovation and competition between NFL teams. In the NFL Draft, the draft order in the NFL is determined in a reverse-record order (the previous season’s worst team picking first, the Super Bowl winner picking last).Other leagues followed suit. In the AFL Draft, clubs receive picks based on the position in which they finish on the ladder. Therefore, the teams that finish at the bottom of the AFL ladder will get the first draft picks. Also, any team that finishes in a low ladder position for consecutive seasons will receive priority picks. The National Hockey League (NHL), another non-for profit organization, implemented the NHL Draft, which allowed all 14 teams that failed to qualify for the playoffs take part in a weighted lottery with the winner moving up as much as four draft positions and no drop more than one draft position.In the NBA Draft, instead of automatically granting the top pick to the worst team from the year before, the NBA holds a draft lottery to determine who chooses first. The top three picks are allocated by chance among the 14 teams that did not make the playoffs the year before. This discourages a team from losing on purpose to get a better draft pick.In the AFL Draft, clubs receive picks based on the position in which they finish on the ladder. Therefore, the teams that finish at the bottom of the AFL ladder will get the first draft picks. Also, any team that finishes in a low ladder position for consecutive seasons will receive priority picks.

Giuseppe Zanotti Black Red & White Platforms,Prada Oltramare / Indigo Camoscio Platforms,Jimmy Choo Suede Red 0110058911 Platforms,Christian Louboutin Grey/Acier Lady Peep Spikes Platforms,Christian Louboutin Multi Colored Echasse 120 Specchio Calf Platforms,Christian Louboutin Blac Very Prive 120 Kid 1080237 Platforms,Christian Louboutin Black Spike / Platforms,Christian Louboutin Tan/Beige Knot Denim Heel PlatformsChristian Louboutin Black Patent Leather Bianca Pumps,Prada Black Nwb Rubber-dipped Mary Jane Pumps Platforms,Christian Louboutin Patent Nude Lady Peep Platforms,Christian Louboutin Tan and Red Platforms,Prada White Linea Rossa Sneaker Platforms,Christian Louboutin Glitter Multi Jenny PlatformsSaint Laurent Grey Janis Pump Platforms,Christian Louboutin Red/Off White Jefferson Plato 140 Suede/Cervo Heel Toe Platforms,Jimmy Choo Black Patent Peep Toe Mary Jane Platforms,Christian Louboutin Red Plaid Lady Daf 160 Platforms,Christian Louboutin Nude/ Light Gold Ulona Strappy Heels PlatformsChristian Louboutin Nude/Cork Bianca Spiked Heel Platforms,Jimmy Choo Black Prima Cork Wedge Espadrille Sandals 38.5 Patent Slide Platforms,Christian Louboutin Nude Red Daffodills PlatformsChristian Louboutin Brown Leather Heel Platforms,Christian Louboutin Lady Peep Pumps 150,Christian Louboutin Nude Pigalle 120 Plato Patent Platforms,Christian Louboutin Black/Silver Venus Orlato 140 Platforms,Christian Louboutin Black Leather Lady Daf 160 Mary Jane Pumps Platforms,Christian Louboutin Beige Patent Leather Lady Peep Platform Pumps,Christian Louboutin Pink Bianca Peep Toe Pumps PlatformsChristian Louboutin Nude Earth Very Prive 120 Calf Woodstock Platforms,

According to the Kevin B. Grier, Robert D. Tollison, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, The rookie draft and competitive balance: The case of professional football, Vol. 25, 1994, http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/G/Kevin.B.Grier-1/JEBO1994.pdf:

Prada White Open Toe Espadrille Platforms,On average, the draft clearly matters; higher draft choices raise winning percentages significantly over time. The rookie draft tends to promote competitive balance. Further, relative success in the draft is correlated with on-the-field success (pg. 298).

Christian Louboutin Nude New Simple 120mm Patent Pumps Platforms,The draft tends to balance competition in professional football, as its architects intended it to do (pg.298).According to Ross Booth, Sport Management Review, Comparing Sports Leagues: Does a Salary Cap and Player Draft Measure Up?, 2005, 8, 119–143, http://law.psu.edu/_file/Sports%20Law%20Policy%20and%20Research%20Institute/booth%20comparing%20competitive%20balance.pdf:

Evidence of competitive balance in the AFL is consistent with Booth’s theoretical argument that the introduction of the team salary cap and player draft has improved competitive balance in the AFL (pg.120)

Stella McCartney Bordeaux Britt Faux Leather Platforms,

Written by

View all posts by:

No Comments Yet.

Christian Patent Louboutin Hyper Prive 120-black Patent Christian Platforms 5f92c3